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Key Tipcategory Date Tip
617 10 C's 1/4/2011 I saw this on a web video. It was called the 10 C's. Cut, Cover, Cordage, Combustion, cooking/carry, cloth tape, compass, cloth signal, candle light
663 3 seconds to calm yourself in a survival situation 5/4/2015 God or Mother Nature always has met and always will meet all your needs. You just have to look around and realize it. stop think I deserve and plan.
602 3 W's: wicking, warmth and wind 11/5/2009 • Remember the "3 Ws" (wicking, warmth, and wind) of layering. The layer next to your skin should be polypropylene, which wicks away moisture. Next, pull on a fleece layer to trap body-warmed air. Finally, zip on a tightly woven, breathable, windproof layer that lets moisture out but keeps warmth in. In extremely cold conditions, add another warmth layer. • The same "3 Ws" apply to your hands (thin polypropylene gloves, warm mittens, breathable outer shell) and your head (thin wicking hat first, warm hat, hood for wind protection).
625 5 C's 3/11/2012 This will help you remember the five physical items you need to look for to survival. Cordage, Cutting items, Container to boil water, Cover or Shelter, Combustion or things to make a fire.
571 5 ways to navigate without a compass 1/15/2009 5 WAYS TO NAVIGATE WITHOUT A COMPASS 1) Sun Hold an analog watch flat, with the hour hand pointing to the sun. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12. 2) Shadows Stand a 3-foot stick vertically in the ground and mark the tip of its shadow with a rock. Wait at least 15 minutes, then mark the shadow again. The line connecting the two roughly coincides with the east-west line. 3) Stars Find the Big Dipper. Follow an imaginary line drawn through the two stars at the end of the cup and extending into the sky to a medium-bright star–this is Polaris, the North Star. 4) Moon Watch the sky. If the crescent moon rises before sunset, its illuminated side will face west. If it rises after midnight, the brighter side faces east. 5) Plants In Eastern and Midwestern prairies, find the bright-yellow bloom of a compass plant (Silphium laciniatum, right). In sunny spots, its leaves generally align themselves along the north-south line.
60 5 W's 3/9/2007 The Five "W's" of Survival: _____________ Weather: Temperature of the area, know what kind of shelter you need.______________ Wood: How much wood is around for both fire and shelter.___________ Wigglies: spiders, scorpions, snakes, anything that can bite you or poison you.________________ Widowmakers: rocks, trees, large animals, anything that can fall on you or attack you.__________________ Water: Where will you get water, how will you obtain it.
23 Alochol Stoves 12/24/2006
543 audible signals 6/26/2008 Audible signals should be made in rhythmic bursts of three. A long whistle blast sounds like a hawk from a distance, but 3 timed short blasts sound like a signal for help. Gunshots and car horns also should be timed in groups of three. Yelling is the poorest alternative. A whistle is a very good emergency item -- especially for children, who may be frightened by strange noises at night. If the noise is caused by searchers, a whistle will bring them closer. If caused by animals, real or imagined, a whistle will scare them away.
51 Avalanche Transmitters 2/26/2007 According to Klaus Kranebitter, a mountain guide and one of the founders of SAAC, a recent survey into the use of radio transceivers produced some alarming figures. The average time required to locate a ski tourer buried in an avalanche and not carrying a transceiver was two hours and 50 minutes. For those carrying a transceiver, the average time fell to 20 minutes - at which time the chances of survival are still good. Yet the survey found that a third of ski tourers and two thirds of people venturing off-piste went without a transceiver.
66 Avalanche: Wet Snow 3/31/2007 Wet Snow Avalanche: Most avalanche professionals make a hard distinction between dry snow and wet snow avalanches because they are such different beasts. They are caused by different processes, they fail and fracture differently, they are triggered differently and they move differently down the slope. Really, there is a continuum between wet and dry avalanches and professional workers use the words: dry, damp, moist, wet and saturated to describe the continuum. Wet avalanches cause relatively few avalanche fatalities, consequently, they are studied less and are not as well understood.1: Caused by decreasing the strength of the snowpack. 2: Difficult for people to trigger. Most accidents are from natural avalanches. 3: Usually by rain, prolonged melting by sun or very warm temperatures. 4: Slower (10-40 mph) like concrete and usually without a dust cloud.
67 Avalanches : Dry Snow 3/31/2007 1: Caused by putting too much additional stress on the snowpack. 2:Triggered by the victims or someone in the victim’s party in 90 percent of cases. 3:Usually loading of wind drifted snow or loading of new snow. 4:Fast (80 mph or so) usually with a dust cloud.
621 backcountry survival food 2/1/2011 Pine Tea: make tea from pine needles. The needles of the white pine are very high in Vitamin C (more than 6 lemons!) and also contain Vitamin A. # Select your pine needles by picking the newest green ones from the tree. These would be the ones nearest the end of each branch, and slightly lighter green than the rest of the needles. # 2 Finely chop them until you have about 1/2 cup. # 3 Add your needles to the boiling water and simmer for about 20 minutes, or until the volume of water has reduced by about 1/3. Allow it to steep for anywhere from 20 minutes to overnight, depending on how strong you like your tea. The result will be a reddish colored tea with a mild taste.
527 Bandana 4/29/2008 "A large cotton bandana is your wardrobe's maid-of-all-work. It performs as a potholder, napkin, dish cloth, washcloth, towel, emergency headgear, Lawrence-of-Arabia neck protector, snooze mask, and even fig leaf." source–The Complete Walker, Colin Fletcher and Chip Rawlins
5 Being Found 12/16/2006 Tell someone where you are going and when you will be back. If you do not return at that time, have them call a search and rescue group. Time is critical in your location.
610 Best Emergency Food to Buy? 4/28/2010 How do you choose a good packet? Do they last different amounts of time? What nutrition features should I pay attention to? MRE’s are decent, but they’re bulky and heavy. They have a good shelf-life and you don’t need a heat source to prepare them. Mountain House sells a product called a #10 Can. They’re dehydrated foods, you add boiling water and about 10-min later it’s ready to eat. A #10 Can has about 20 servings, but I think it takes about 2 servings to feed an adult They cost about $20-30, depending on the "recipe" you get. They claim they have a shelf life of 30 years. When looking at nutrition, you want a couple of things. First you want a high calorie to weight and/or energy ratio. Calories are the fuel your body uses. For an average person who sits around all day, 2000 calories is more than enough. If you’re in the wilderness, or a disaster, and you’re doing physical work like building shelters, hiking, etc, you’re going to burn a lot more calories. A hiker who covers moderately hilly terrain and crosses 15-20 miles in a day probably uses 5000+ calories. If you’re planning for extended use, you’re also going to want to look at various nutrients. Calcium, magnesium, various vitamins, etc… food is the best source of absorption of nutrients, pills are often only 1/3 to 1/5 as effective as food. Also, for extended planning, you’ll want to store some vitamin C, but be careful as it deteriorates quickly over time. Essentially, vitamin C only stays viable for about 1 year. For example, if you store a bottle of orange juice, after a year, there is no vitamin C left in it. Lemon juice is a great way to store vitamin C (again, deteriorates over time), because you can add it to a lot of foods to give them a little zest and extra flavor.
540 best survival tool 6/26/2008 The brain is by far the best survival tool we have. Survival is much more a mental than physical exercise, and keeping control of the brain is necessary. The large size of the human brain requires a high metabolic sacrifice in water and temperature control. Keeping the brain hydrated and in the shade will be more beneficial than all the gee-whiz survival gizmos in the sporting goods store.
97 Bleach and water purification 11/6/2007 Common household bleach can be used to purify water. Use about two drops per quart or liter of water - that's about 1/2 tablespoon for 5 gallons. Stir or shake and let it sit for thirty minutes or longer. Double the dosage for murky or questionable water.
608 Boiling water. How long? Water purification 3/16/2010 Boiling Boiling is the most certain way of killing all microorganisms. According to the Wilderness Medical Society, water temperatures above 160° F (70° C) kill all pathogens within 30 minutes and above 185° F (85° C) within a few minutes. So in the time it takes for the water to reach the boiling point (212° F or 100° C) from 160° F (70° C), all pathogens will be killed, even at high altitude. To be extra safe, let the water boil rapidly for one minute, especially at higher altitudes since water boils at a lower temperature
659 bow fire drill 5/4/2015 on the drill the sharp point of the drill faces up and goes into the notch in the rock. the blunt and goes over the notch in the fire board.
567 Building a camp fire 3 ways 12/31/2008 3 Easy Ways to Build a Campfire If you’re going on a camping trip with your family, the one thing everyone is sure to be looking forward to is having a roaring campfire. If you’ve never built one before though, you might not know exactly how to get a campfire going nicely. So let’s look at three easy ways to do this. Before starting your campfire, you’ll want to clear a space on the ground. If you’re camping in a place which already has a campfire pit, you can skip this part. Otherwise, you’ll need to clear an area of any brush, weeds, or other dried twigs to be sure it’s as safe as you can get it. Once you have an area cleared, you might also want to surround it with rocks. It’s also helpful to dig a small pit in the cleared area. Both of these steps also help contain the campfire and help to prevent forest or brush fires. Once you have your campfire pit ready, you’ll want to start building the fire itself. Here are three easy ways to do that: 1. Create a Teepee. First make a small pile of fire kindling in the center of your pit. Kindling is anything small and dry such as pine needles, and tiny twigs. Then around and above your kindling pile, lean small sticks against each other in an Indian TeePee shape. Light the kindling, and once it starts burning, it should easily catch the TeePee twigs on fire too. Then you simply keep adding wood! 2. Create a Log Cabin. To make a log cabin campfire, you again start with a small pile of kindling in the middle of your firepit. Then you lay out twigs and sticks in a square shape around the kindling pile. With a log cabin style campfire, you’ll need to make sure you’re laying your cabin sticks close enough to the kindling for them to light. Once you have small “walls” for your cabin built up several inches, light the kindling. As that catches on, it should also light the twigs and sticks from your “cabin”. 3. Make a Wagon Wheel. With a wagon wheel campfire, you’re again starting out with a small pile of kindling in the center of your fire pit. Then you lay your twigs and sticks across the top, intersecting each other in a way that makes the wood look like the spokes on a wagon wheel. After the wood catches, you’ll want to move the longer pieces of your “wheel” in closer to the center so they can burn full. So there you have it. Three easy ways to build a great campfire! Now that you know the simple ways to do this, you’ll enjoy your next family camping, hiking or trekking trip all the more. 2005 Kathy Burns-Millyard.
535 building a water filter 5/4/2008 Pour-though filtering systems can be made in an emergency. Here's one example that will remove many contaminants: Take a five or seven gallon pail (a 55-gallon drum can also be used for a larger scale system) and drill or punch a series of small holes on the bottom. Place several layers of cloth on the bottom of the bucket, this can be anything from denim to an old table cloth. Add a thick layer of sand (preferred) or loose dirt. This will be the main filtering element, so you should add at least half of the pail's depth. Add another few layers of cloth, weighted down with a few larger rocks. Your home-made filter should be several inches below the top of the bucket. Place another bucket or other collection device under the holes you punched on the bottom. Pour collected or gathered water into the top of your new filter system. As gravity works its magic, the water will filter through the media and drip out the bottom, into your collection device. If the water is cloudy or full of sediment, simply let it drop to the bottom and draw the cleaner water off the top of your collection device with a straw or tube.
665 call me and strong thoughts 5/4/2015 God guides guards governs protects and provides you just need to open your eyes to it.
671 calming survival thoughts 5/4/2015 attitude is the key to surviving all situations. never ever ever give up. there is always a solution there is always an answer there is always hope and there's always rescue whether it comes from you or from other sources. constantly improve your survival situation. constantly improve your habitats.
667 calming survival thoughts 5/4/2015 whatever is governed by God is never for an instant deprived of the light and might of intelligence and life. stop think I deserve and planned. calm yourself and solution will present itself.
669 calming thoughts for survival 5/4/2015 in a survival situation attitude is the key note in getting through the issue. you must draw upon either inner strength or some other source that will give you the strength and determination to get through any hostile situation. fear clouds the thinking process. fear slows down your reaction time. fear confuses the direction and actions that you must take in order to survive and have a positive outcome. before you are lost before you are found in a situation come up with some type of calming thought that you can draw from that will allow you to start your rules of 3 and you can stop think observed and plan in a harmonious and calm decision making process.
668 calming thoughts for survival 5/4/2015 God's love and protection is ever present. His arms in circle you and all. open your eyes stop think observe and plan.
17 Car stranded 12/18/2006 Carry blankets, water and road flares. Road flares can help in signaling and starting a fire (outside the car)to provide heat, thermal signature and light.
16 Car stranded 12/18/2006 Keep snow away from your exhust pipe. If it becomes covered, you may die or suffer from carbon monoxide poisoning.
15 Car stranded 12/18/2006 If stranded in a car tie a brightly colored piece of cloth (such as a length of surveyor's tape) to the antenna. Use dome light at night since headlights take too much energy. Carry an emergency jump pack if your car battery dies(very inexpensive).
19 Car survival tools 12/18/2006 1. Sleeping bag or two blankets for each occupant 2. Extra winter clothing, including gloves, boots and snow goggles, for each occupant 3. Emergency food 4. Metal cup 5. Waterproof matches 6. Long-burning candles, at least two 7. First-aid kit 8. Spare doses of personal medications 9. Swiss army knife or Leatherman-type multi-tool 10. Three 3-lb empty coffee cans with lids, for melting snow or sanitary purposes 11. Toilet paper 12. Cell phone and/or citizen's band radio, with chargers 13. Portable radio receiver, with spare batteries 14. Flashlight with extra batteries and bulb 15. Battery booster cables and/or car battery recharging unit (plugs into cigarette lighter) 16. Extra quart of automobile oil (place some in hubcap and burn for emergency smoke signal) 17. Tire chains 18. Jack and spare tire 19. Road flares 20. Snow shovel 21. Windshield scraper and brush 22. Tow strap or chain 23. Small sack of sand or cat litter 24. Two plastic gallon drinking water jugs, full 25. Tool kit 26. Gas line deicer 27. Flagging, such as surveyor's tape (tie to top of radio antenna for signal) 28. Duct tape 29. Notebook and pencil/marker 30. Long rope (e.g. clothesline) to act as safety rope if you leave car in blizzard 31. Carbon monoxide detector 32. Ax 33. Saw 34. Full tank of gas
530 care of feet 4/29/2008 Wear polyester or wool socks that wick away moisture. Exchange wet socks for a dry pair as often as possible. Tie the soaked socks to the outside of your pack, where they'll dry out as you hike–even in cold weather. Dry boots overnight by propping the tongues open with twigs.
547 children survival tips 8/28/2008 There is a good book providing survival tips for children. Name: "Outdoor Survival Handbook for Kids" by Willy Whitefeather. It is more desert oriented but has some great value in it.
30 Clothing; Socks 12/27/2006 Many hikers wear two pair of socks. Combining an outer wool sock with an inner polypropylene sock will drain moisture you’re your feet. This is a valuable practice that all hikers should get in the habit of doing. Making your feet more comfortable will make your hike infinitely more enjoyable. In addition, carry an extra set in your back pack. You will sleep better with a dry pair at night and allow your wet pair to dry out. Socks can also be used to keep your water bottle from freezing and used as an extra set of gloves. Make sure they are not cotton. Cotton Kills.
101 Cold Feet 11/11/2007 If your feet are cold, put on a hat. In fact, while sleeping, a great way to keep your feet warm is to sleep with a sherpa had or similar type of head covering. You lose a lot of your body heat through your head.
100 Cold Feet 11/11/2007 Before you go to bed make sure you're wearing dry socks. Even if your socks are a little damp, don't just add another layer over them. Change them! Remove your sweaty liners too.
57 compass sitck 3/2/2007 Place a stick in the ground perpendicular to the surface. Mark the end point of the shadow. Wait 15 minutes and mark the next end point of the shadow. Connect the two points. This will be our east and west line. Bisect the line and this will be your north and south line. Remember the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The first point you mark will be west and the second point will be east.Remeber as the sun moves to the west the shadow moves to the east. Practice this.
55 compass: using a watch or a stick to tell north 3/2/2007 Learn how to use a watch and the sun to determine direction, or how to use a stick and shadow. Compasses break, and maps get lost. You should know at least one or two ways to determine direction. You should also note the direction most likely to take you out of the wilderness before you start. If you remember that a highway runs along the entire south side of the area you are in, you know which way to go in an emergency.
26 Cooking 12/27/2006 Making soup over a small fire is not as easy as it seems. Cover the pan, block the wind, and keep the fire small and concentrated. Time yourself when you practice. You don’t have to rush normally, but speed can be important in some situations, and it’s always possible your stove will break.
22 Cooking 12/24/2006 Alcohol stoves are great to carry. 1. no working parts to break. 2: if they leak, it will not ruin your clothes or equipment. 3. Fuel can be used to start larger fires. 4. Fuel can be used to sterilize wounds. 5. Fuel does not freeze.
13 Cordage/ Dental Floss 12/18/2006 Dental floss has superb tensile strength. Use it to sew a blown shoulder strap on a backpack or lash a garbage sack to the skeleton of an improvised shelter to form the roof.It can be used to build snares, fire starting and is very lite and small to carry.
564 dakota fire hole 12/7/2008 A little known survival aid related to wilderness fire making skills is the Dakota Fire Hole, also known as the Dakota Fire Pit. This handy device is easy to construct and has marked advantages over other types of camp fire constructs. Once you make a Dakota fire hole and try it out, you may choose to use this method on a regular basis. Making a Dakota Fire Hole is initially more labor intensive than simply building a fire on the surface of the ground. However the outlay in energy required to make a Dakota fire hole is more than offset by its efficient consumption of fuel; it greatly reduces the amount of firewood required to cook meals, treat water to destroy pathogens, or warm your body. The Dakota fire hole is a valuable wilderness survival aid because it burns fuel more efficiently, producing hotter fires with less wood. In many areas firewood is scarce or requires a large amount of time and expenditure of energy in foraging to obtain it. Once you build a fire, efforts are better spent attending to your other wilderness survival needs rather than in the constant gathering of firewood. Other advantages of the Dakota fire hole are that it creates a kind of woodstove with a stable platform that is very convenient to cook over. Should you need to conceal your fire, the fire hole will limit the amount of visible smoke that rises from the fire, since the fuel wood is burning hotter and more efficiently. The pit will also help conceal the light emitted from your fire, especially at night when even a single candle flame can be seen from miles away. Where to Build a Dakota Fire Hole Before you start to dig your Dakota fire hole you should scout out an area where soil conditions are conducive to its proper construction. You will want to avoid areas that are rocky and difficult to dig. with thick tree roots that require cutting. that are wet or where a dug hole will fill with water. With soil conditions such as dry loose sand that will not hold shape as it is dug into. The usual requirements related to general fire craft and care always apply. As always, treat the wilderness areas you enjoy and count on to survive with respect. Be sure you do not make a Dakota Fire Hole in conditions where out of control wild fires are a possibility and avoid ecologically sensitive areas. Try not to injure the roots of trees and plants. Follow local ordinances regarding the making of fires; these rules are in place for good reason. Making a Dakota Fire Hole Now that we have the introduction taken care of, we can make a Dakota Fire Hole. As shown in the picture, I am using an army folding shovel to dig with. Many wilderness survivors carry a small hand trowel for the burying of human wastes and this also works well. A strong stick or part from your mess kit can also be utilized for digging holes in a pinch; survival experts are experts at innovation so use whatever means you have available. Making the Fire Pit Chamber Having selected a likely area in which to dig the fire hole, first remove a plug of soil and plant roots in the form of a circle about 10 or 12 inches in diameter. Continue digging straight down to a depth of about one-foot being sure to save the plug and the soil you removed for replacement later on. This part of the Dakota fire hole will serve as the main chamber that contains the fire. I prefer to extend the base of the fire chamber outward a couple of inches in all directions so that it can accommodate longer pieces of firewood. This saves time and energy in breaking up firewood into suitable lengths, and also has the effect of allowing larger and therefore hotter fires.The effect is a jug-shaped hole at the base of which you place firewood. The neck of the jug will serve as a chimney of sorts the function of which is to increase the draft and concentrate the heat of the fire into the small opening. Making the Fire Hole Airway Now comes the key component of the Dakota hole that makes this fire making method so effective; the airway. Before you start on the airway tunnel, determine the general direction of the wind. If the wind is too light to easily ascertain its direction you can often lick a finger and hold it up, being sure it is away from any obstructions. Evaporative cooling on one side or the other of your appendage will be felt from which direction the wind, however light, is blowing. That is the side of the fire hole on which to construct the airway. Dig a 6-inch diameter airway tunnel starting about one foot away from the edge of the fire hole. Angle its construction so that the tunnel intersects with the base of the fire chamber as shown in the diagram and picture. As when you made the fire hole section, be sure to save the plug containing the vegetation and roots as well as the loose soil you remove. Using the Dakota Fire Hole Now that the Dakota Fire Hole is properly constructed, you can partially fill the fire pit chamber with dry combustible kindling materials and light the fire. To start the fire I am using a FireSteel, the kind Survival Topics highly recommends to be included in every survival kit. These firesteels from work even when wet and will literally light thousands of fires before wearing out – try doing that with matches or a lighter! We sell high quality Firesteels at the lowest prices in the Survival Supplies section of this website. Help support this website and buy them here - I guarantee a quality product. Once the flame is going strong, drop it into the fire pit so that it catches the kindling on fire; gradually add sticks so that a strong hot fire is maintained. How a Dakota Fire Hole Works The accompanying diagram shows the secret of what makes the Dakota Firehole so effective. As the fire burns, the hot air that is created goes up through the fire hole “chimney”. This creates a suction action that forcefully draws air down through the tunnel and into the base of the fire. The draft is increased even more by your having constructed the tunnel on the side from which the prevailing wind is coming. Acting as a kind of bellows, the flames are continuously fanned and the fire burns hotter and more efficiently than a fire that is simply made on the surface to the ground. Hotter fires mean less smoke. In addition, the heat of the fire is concentrated into an upward direction where you can better capture it for use. This allows you to do more with less wood – an excellent survival fire by any measure. Fire Hole Improvements Once you have made the Dakota fire hole you can easily set up a cooking surface for pots and pans by laying several parallel green sticks across the fire pit as show in the picture. Lacking camp cooking gear you can also find a flat rock that only partially covers the hole – and use it as a sort of hobo frying pan. It is also an easy matter to set a “Y” shaped stick into the ground onto which is rested a green pole with bannock dough, fish, or other outdoor meal. For more information on the wilderness survival staple known as bannock read the Survival Topic on How to Make Bannock. Campfire Cleanup When it is time to leave the area, be a responsible wilderness survivor who values the land you need for survival. Fill in the Dakota fire hole with the dirt you removed and saved when you were constructing it. Then replace the cap of vegetation. Doing so serves the double purpose of extinguishing the fire and leaving as little trace of your visit as possible. In summary, the main advantages of using a Dakota Fire Hole include: burns hotter with less fuel producing less smoke less light visible to those you do not want to find you providing a stable cooking surface easy extinguishing of the fire and removal of evidence you have been there when you are preparing to leave. There can be no doubt, making the Dakota Fire Hole one of the best types of survival fires you can make when surviving in the wilderness.
524 Dealing with Black Bears in the Sierras 4/22/2008 In your yard: Do not run. Be aggressive and assert your dominance by standing tall and making noise that will scare the bear away. Banging pots and pans together and shouting loudly works well. See Bear-proof Your Property for tips on how to avoid future encounters around your home. In the woods: This is the bear’s territory, respect that and do not run. Make eye contact but don’t stare, pick up small children make yourself appear as large as possible, stay calm and quiet, back away and enjoy the experience from a safe distance. Anywhere: If the bear attempts to get away, DO NOT block the bear’s escape route. Bears will often climb a tree if frightened and usually won't come down if humans or dogs are present. Never get between a mom and her cubs. Slowly walk away and make a loud noise. Though attacks are very rare, if you are attacked, FIGHT BACK AGGRESSIVELY!
537 Desert survival clothing 6/26/2008 Preparation starts with how you dress. People stand upright and receive only 60% of the solar radiation that animals on all fours do. By adding a proper hat, with a wide brim and closed crown, the head and body are further protected. A common mistake made by new desert visitors is wearing shorts and sleeveless shirts. Loose fitting long sleeves and pants provide good air circulation and much better protection than sunblock. Sunglasses that exclude ultra-violet light are a good idea, and some studies claim they can help prevent cataracts later. Other areas of preparation include proper vehicle maintenance, carrying sufficient water, first aid and survival kits for desert environments, a sturdy, sharp knife and some useful knowledge.
12 Duct Tape 12/18/2006 Duct tape is great. It can be used to prevent blisters, used as a splint. folds into emergency snow glasses. burns as fire starter, repair broken gear and more.
28 Eating: Plants 12/27/2006 Learning to identify three or four wild edible berries can make a trip more enjoyable. Learning to identify cattails and one or two other good survival food plants can be very helpful, especially if you ever lose your food to a bear.
2 Exposure 12/16/2006 a couple of garbage bags can be used as a rainsuit, tube tent, Solar Still, Melting snow on a sunny day, just to name a few. Carry it is very lite.
551 exposure staying dry 9/25/2008 You can be wet and warm when it far below freezing, as long as you are active. The moment you stop moving, however, you start to lose your body heat. Once you get chilled through, it is difficult to get warm again. Hypothermia (a lowered body temperature) kills many people every year.If you get wet, try to get dry before you go to sleep. Put dry clothes on if you have them, and use a fire to dry any wet clothes. Earlier in the day, you may be able to hang damp clothes on your pack to dry in the sun. Often when it is coldest, the air is dryer.
575 fast backpacking 1/15/2009 PACK IN 20 MINUTES Keep a gear list taped to the inside of a closet door or under the lid of your storage bin. Visit for samples. Stow your backpacking clothes–including hats, gloves, and bandanas–together in a dedicated place in your closet or dresser. Reserve a small corner of the pantry for camp food (dehydrated meals, dried fruit, nuts) so that you don't have to shop for staples en route to the trailhead. Replenish after every trip. Store essentials in a plastic "go box." IN YOUR GO BOX: First-aid kit Mug, spoon, bowl Headlamp Extra batteries Fuel Stove Cookware, scrub pad, soap Two kinds of firestarter Repair kit Compass Pocket knife/multitool Bandana/camp towel Zip-top bags Sanitation kit (trowel, TP, hand sanitizer) Bring the Right Amount of Food Most hikers carry more food than they really need, which means dead weight in your pack. Take a maximum of 3,500 calories per person per day (about 2 pounds) for standard trips; bump it up to a max of 5,000 calories for extremely cold conditions.
531 feet socks 4/29/2008 Socks can also be used as mittens as well as pot holders.
607 Fema 3 day survival kit suggestions 3/16/2010 Three-day supply of nonperishable food and manual can opener.  Three-day supply of water (one gallon of water per person, per day).  Portable, battery-powered radio or television, and extra batteries.  Flashlight and extra batteries.  First aid kit and manual.  Sanitation and hygiene items (hand sanitizer, moist towelettes, and toilet paper).  Matches in waterproof container.  Whistle.  Extra clothing and blankets.  Kitchen accessories and cooking utensils.  Photocopies of identification and credit cards.  Cash and coins.  Special needs items such as prescription medications, eye glasses, contact lens solution, and hearing aid batteries.  Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifiers.  Tools, pet supplies, a map of the local area, and other items to meet your unique family needs.
618 Fema Water Purification using household bleach 1/17/2011 In a common local disaster scenario (hurricane, ice storm, tornado, etc), organizations such as FEMA and the Red Cross suggest using unscented household bleach (5.25 to 6.0 percent sodium hypochlorite) to treat water. FEMAs instructions are as follows: “Add 16 drops (1/8 teaspoon) of bleach per gallon of water, stir, and let stand for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight bleach odor. If it doesn’t, then repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes. If it still does not smell of chlorine, discard it and find another source of water.”
598 figure 4 trap 9/12/2009 A deadfall is a baited trap which, when triggered, allows a weight to drop on the animal, often—as the term implies—killing it outright. The figure 4 takes its name from the shape of its trigger assembly and is about as simple to construct as any trap I know of. The trigger is composed of three sticks, two of which—when used for rabbit-sized animals—will each be about six inches long, and the third eight inches (the sizes will vary some with the type of animal to be trapped). The weight is usually a large, flattish rock or a log. The figure 4 trap should be set near trails or established feeding areas, but—since it depends upon bait rather than upon a beast's unwittingly stumbling into it—never directly in a run or line of travel. Remember when assembling it that the vertical stake should not be positioned beneath the rock or log, that the bait should be attached to the crosspiece and as far under the weight as is practical, and that a small fence of twigs around the "outer" portion of the upright can prevent an animal from inadvertently setting off the device by striking the trigger while not under the log or rock.
1 Fire 12/16/2006 Dryer lint ignites easily with a flint and knife. It is very lite to carry.
515 fire 3/22/2008 Cotton balls covered with vasoline will ignite with a spark from a knife and a flint. Firew making should be practiced often and on a regular basis.Practice it in the rain and other poor weather conditions. It may save your life.
9 Fire 12/18/2006 Connect fine-grade steel wool to the positive and negative terminals of a 9-volt battery to create a glowing fire starter. (A pair of 6-volt, AA batteries held in a series will do.)
374 fire 3/12/2008 Using hand sanitizer (purell etc) and cottonballs works as a good fire starter. It will start with a spark from flint and steel.
634 fire 12/18/2012 Sure you can haul flint, steel, bow drills, sparkers, or waterproof matches, but a butane lighter is the cheapest, simplest, lightest (0.4 oz) emergency item on the planet. Cold? Warm it against your skin. If it's wet, dry it under your clothes. ----------------------------------------------------------------- First step: Pick a spot out of the wind, where rocks, trees, or brush provide shelter and a heat reflector. It's best if wood and tinder are nearby. (Note: the pine needles on the ground here are all soaked.)------------------------------------------------------ 3) Worry about small stuff not big logs. Starting your fire is the biggest hurdle, so look for dry tinder and gather plenty of small, easily combustible twigs, dead leaves, dry grass, or dead pine needles. Be as picky as possible.------------------------------------------------------- 4) Dead, standing trees, and the base of thickly-branched trunks, often shelter lots of dry tinder. Gather fuel in three main categories: Tinder, then 'small stuff' up to one inch in diameter, then larger, long-burning wood. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 5) Dead, dry pine cones and finger-thick wood fall under the 'small stuff' category. They catch fire easily and create quick heat, but can't be used to light the fire itself.--------------------------------------------------------- 6) Lastly, go for thicker wood. For a full night out in cold, you'll need lots--about a waist-high pile. Gather it before darkness falls. If you're hypothermic, use the search effort to warm up, or gather added wood after you warm up with a small fire.----------------------------------------------------------- 7) Break larger sticks is by propping them against a rock or log and stepping down firmly. Avoid breaking wood over your knee or baseball-batting it against boulders. Now is not the time for injuries.------------------------------------------------------- 8) Sort your fuel roughly according to size and pile it a convenient, arms-reach distance from your fire location.------------------------------------------------------- 9) For a long overnight, gather excess tinder and shelter it carefully in case you need to re-start your fire. You can also use the fire itself to dry out wet wood or marginal tinder for later use. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 10) Make a platform to let you stick the starting flame into a wind-sheltered nook beneath the tinder. Lighting the top of a pile won't work.----------------------------------------------------------- 11) Heap alot of tinder and small twigs atop the platform so the initial fire is big enough to sustain itself. Keep the pile 'fluffed up' to allow air to circulate through it. Fire starts fail because of not enough tinder, aeration, or wind-protection.------------------------------------------------ 12) Prepare thoroughly, double check it, then fire up. If necessary, blow lightly against the base of the starting flame in a bellows manner.--------------------------------------------------------- 13) If you've done it right, and your tinder is relatively dry, a quick light should build into a fire. This took a 2-second flick of lighter. The photo was shot 30 seconds after striking. Pile lots of 'small stuff' onto it quickly without smothering. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 14) Once it's stable, keep your fire small but hot and clean. Smoke doesn't generate heat; flames do. For an overnight, you'll need about 10 times the amount of wood shown. Try and keep your impacts light, but this isn't about LNT; it's about surviving.
29 Fire 12/27/2006 Start practicing in your yard. Try to start that fire with one match. Also try it the next time it’s raining. Get in the habit of collecting dry tinder before the rain comes. Learn what things burn even when wet, like birch bark and pine sap.
526 fire 4/29/2008 An inflatable kayak pump can be for fanning stove or campfire flames. It saves your breath and energy.
541 fire 6/26/2008 Fire may seem odd to have so high on the list of desert survival priorities, but there are considerations other than warmth, though a fire may also be needed for that reason. Fire can be used to signal, cook food and purify water. Fire also provides psychological comfort. People do not feel so lonely with a fire. It makes the night less frightening, and while there are few large animals dangerous to people in North American deserts, fire will keep them at bay. It is important to know how to start a fire under severe conditions with means other than matches.
639 fire , candle making, wicks 1/10/2013 Dissolve 2 tablespoons of table salt and 4 tablespoons of borax in 1 1/2 cups of warm water. Soak a 1-foot length of regular cotton kite string or twine in the solution for 15 minutes. Hang each string with a clothespin for 5 days to be sure it is completely dry. Use a paperclip to dip each string completely in melted wax 3 to 4 times, coating it completely. Hang another 5 days to ensure dry.
49 Fire building 2/11/2007 * Build campfires away from overhanging branches, steep slopes, rotten stumps, logs, dry grass, and leaves. Pile any extra wood away from the fire. * Keep plenty of water handy and have a shovel for throwing dirt on the fire if it gets out of control. * Start with dry twigs and small sticks. * Add larger sticks as the fire builds up. * Put the largest pieces of wood on last, pointing them toward the center of the fire, and gradually push them into the flames. * Keep the campfire small. A good bed of coals or a small fire surrounded by rocks gives plenty of heat. Scrape away litter, duff, and any burnable material within a 10-foot-diameter circle. This will keep a small fire from spreading. * Be sure your match is out! Hold it until it is cold. Break it so that you can feel the charred portion before discarding it. Make sure it is cold out. Conserve matches -- carry a candle as a fire starter. * Never leave a campfire unattended! Even a small breeze can cause a fire to spread. * Drown the fire in water. Make sure all embers, coals, and sticks are wet. Move rocks -- there may be burning embers underneath. * Sir the remains, add more water, and stir again. Be sure all burned material has been extinguished and cooled. If you do not have water, use dirt. Mix enough soil and sand with the embers. Continue adding and stirring until all material is cooled. * Feel all materials with your bare hand. Make sure that no roots are burning. Do not bury your coals -- they can smolder and break out.
549 fire making 9/25/2008 Always carry waterproof matches, and practice starting a fire in the cold BEFORE you go winter backpacking. Learn which tinders work even when wet. Birch bark, for example, will burn when wet, and so will sap from pines and spruces. You may have only minutes before your fingers get too cold to function, so speed is of the essence.
601 Fire Piston 10/9/2009 I received a fire piston that I purchased. It is pretty cool. However there is one drawback. I have yet to be able to get a fire greater than the ember it makes. I have researched it and I think I have a make some fire cloth and place the ember upon the cloth. Other wise, it dose create an ember. It does create some smoke. I just can not get it to flame.
196 fire starter 3/8/2008 PURELL HAND CLEANER: Purell (hand cleaner) is alcohol in a gel and starts like a charm in the rain.
198 fire starter 3/8/2008 PITCH: Use a small piece of wood to scrape pitch from a conifer tree. Place under tinder.
197 fire starter 3/8/2008 TAMPON: Do I need to say more? Highly flammable and should be in all first aid kits anyway!
594 Fire starter: alcohol Swabs, wallet tinder 9/10/2009 In my search for fire starters, I’m always looking for different materials and combinations of materials to create fire. This is so simple that it is often over looked. Alcohol swabs contain 70% Isopropyl Alcohol and can be purchased at a local drugstore or superstore. A box of 100 swabs only costs around $3.00 and are small enough so that you can store a packet in your wallet, glove compartment, survival kit, or wherever. A swab can be ignited by using a spark or flame, and burns for about 1 1/2 minutes without coaxing… but can be stretched over 2 minutes. When using sparks, open the packet to form a pocket so that the alcohol can gasify and help facilitate ignition. Before igniting, pull out the inner pad about 1/4 inch or so to make a wick. Of course, the more you expose the wick the larger the flame will be, and the quicker you will run out of fuel, so depending on your use, you can be conservative or generous on your flame size. For fun, you can try different configurations of wick exposure or packet opening for efficiency or effects you desire. This portable tinder could make a difference on a damp day.
61 Fire starting 3/9/2007 lint from your socks maybe enough to help start a flame.
80 Fire starting 8/31/2007 Glycerine (Glycerol, 1,2,3-propantriol) is mixed with potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and within about 30 seconds, the pile starts to smoke, then burns with a very hot lavender colored flame.
59 Fire starting 3/9/2007 Using a wood peeler on branches will give you fine wood shavings that will enable you to build larger fires.
658 fire with a fire bow 5/4/2015 a fire bow should consist of a bow as long as your arm as big as your should be tired from one end to the other of the fire pole that will go around your stick. the next thing you need is a straight stick about 1 foot long hands big is your thumb. sharpen one end of the stick to a point this is a drill. next look for a dead dry branch of soft wood. it should be 1 foot long two fingers wide and 2 finger stick. cut a notch into the stick and a small depression at the tip of the V notch. next look around for a piece of wood or stone with a dent in it that would be used in the top of the stick.look for tender which would include dry leaves dry grass pine needles dry tree bark an old rotten wood from a tree. cotton balls also work very well and cat tails fluff.grind the tender towards almost a powder what do you have enough to make a size of a softball now you are ready. look for larger items to put on top of the tinder . start from smaller sticks to largest sticks. start from sticks the size of your small finger to sticks the size of your thumb. if you think you have enough wood for your fire double it and maybe even triple it. the fire must have air to live. do not make the fire under a tree or with anything above it that may catch on fire.
645 fire, heating, hyperthermic proofing, environment 4/10/2013
611 fire, tinder 9/29/2010 jute rope can be placed in wax and then stored in a small nalgene bottle for tinder. The wax will not only keep the jute dry but it will burn longer then the non waxed. The same relationship as cotton balls covered in petroleum jelly and not covered.
612 fire, tinder 9/29/2010 q tips covered in wax or petroleum jelly will work well as tinder. Remember to fluff the q tip up before lighting.
628 first aid 10/24/2012 Tampon can be used for bullet wound or open wound. It can also be used for fire starting. Multiple use.
627 first aid 10/24/2012 Tampon can be used for bullet wound or open wound. It can also be used for fire starting. Multiple use.
577 first aid fast relief in your backpack 1/15/2009 FIND RELIEF IN YOUR FOOD BAG Carrots: Cook into mush to make a soothing application for inflamed eyes. Chamomile tea: Drink this to quiet an upset stomach, fight gas, stop vomiting, relieve headaches, and alleviate menstrual cramps. Cranberries: Steep Craisins in hot water for 20 minutes. Consume 3 to 4 cups a day for relief from a urinary tract infection. Garlic: Eat it in any form to boost the immune system. Ginger: Brew tea for headaches, upset stomachs, colds, sore throats, and motion sickness. Add 1 tablespoon of powdered ginger to hot water and steep for 10 minutes (drink 3 times a day) to treat diarrhea. Honey: Dab some on a wound to promote healing and discourage infection–the moisture aids in tissue regeneration, and the natural hydrogen peroxide in honey makes it an effective antibacterial. Tea: Suck on a tea bag for toothache relief–the tannins will help kill the pain. Rice: Save some water after boiling the rice and drink it to treat diarrhea.
78 food mushrooms 8/26/2007 Do not eat mushroom in a survival situatin unless you are positive of the identifications. Symptoms of hte most dangerous mushroom affecting the central nervous system may sho up after several day have passed and it is to late ot reverse the effects.
574 foot care : prevent blisters 1/15/2009 4 WAYS TO PREVENT BLISTERS 1) Buy shoes that allow room for your feet to swell. Break them in by wearing them around town and on dayhikes. 2) Wear wicking socks (synthetic or wool); change into a fresh pair as needed. Hang on your pack to dry. 3) Reduce friction by smearing trouble areas with Sportslick or Bodyglide. 4) Stop and cover hotspots immediately with moleskin, Adventure Medical Kits GlacierGel pads, or plain old duct tape.
516 Garbage bag tips 3/22/2008 Uses for a garbage bag are as follows: Rain Collector, Sunshade, fishing net, rain tarp or poncho, water still, Solar still, solar snow melter, ice packs for injury , flotation device, sleeping bag, apron, roofing for a hasty shelter, holding insulation for keeping you off the ground.
18 getting found 12/18/2006 Use of a whistle is better than shouting. It can be heard at longer distances than voices, takes less energy than yelling and screaming.
641 hidden log cabin 2/25/2013
72 Hiking 6/16/2007 If you take along a hiking pole, this will aid you greatly in assending and decending a hill. A hiking pole also aids in assiting you with keeping your balance on uneven terrain. I use one or two in search and rescue missions. They work.
533 hiking endurance 4/29/2008 Step down: Find a 6- to 8-inch step, box, or stair. (You can work up to 10 inches, but start smaller. Wear a pack for a bonus workout.) Stand with both feet on the step, facing "downhill." Keep your arms at your sides. Balancing on your left foot, bend your left knee and lower yourself until your right heel touches the floor, then push back up. Alternate sides, doing 3 sets of 15 reps per side.
534 hiking endurance 4/29/2008 Not enough pretrip training "I'll let you in on a guide's secret," says Tim O'Brian, who's been leading trips with Rainier Mountaineering, Inc. for 7 years and has climbed in Mexico, Russia, Africa, and South America. "It's bull when people say mountaineers and backpackers don't need to train." O'Brian has a tried-and-true recipe to get fit–even if he's pressed for time: The dumbbell step-up and step-down combination, followed by an hour on a stairclimber. Holding 20 pounds in each hand, step onto a 12- to 18-inch-high box with your right foot. Raise your left leg above the box and step down on the other side without pausing at the top, keeping your weight on your right leg until you land. Then turn around and repeat with the opposite leg. Do three sets of 20.
570 hiking tip steep climb 1/15/2009 BEAT FATIGUE ON STEEP CLIMBS When high altitude and big mountains take their toll, use the "rest step." With each stride, lock your downhill knee, shifting the weight momentarily onto that back leg. This puts your weight on your bones for a moment, allowing your leg muscles to relax. As you take your next step, transfer your weight to the uphill leg and let momentum swing your downhill foot forward. Repeat. Inhale deeply as you step up; exhale deeply as you pause in the rest step. If you're feeling especially winded, try "pressure breathing": Exhale forcefully through pursed lips as if you're blowing out a candle to push oxygen from the alveoli to the bloodstream.
595 holding a knife for wilderness survival 9/10/2009 This is a pretty good class on holding a knife when using it in campcraft. **************************************************************************
640 home security 2/25/2013 Spring’s coming! While you prepare for another round of gardening and landscaping to feed your family and be more self-reliant, here’s a few insights to consider that will help you boost your security at the same time. By JJ Harrison ( (Own work) [GFDL 1.2 ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons By JJ Harrison ( (Own work) [GFDL 1.2 or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons Hopefully, you’re going to plant edibles and homeopathic remedies rather than just fostering a pretty lawn for football. While you do so, though, here’s some multipurpose landscaping tips that will boost your security at the same time. Please note that for this post, I’ve purposely omitted some of the more clearly-advantageous setups like standard fences and tripwires for trespasser detection since they may not serve any landscaping purpose other than security. That doesn’t mean they’re not essential, of course. These multipurpose landscaping tips are meant to assist the effectiveness of your home security plan, not to be your whole home security plan by any stretch of the imagination. 10 landscaping elements you might not’ve been using strategically: 1. Open Space If nobody can approach your home unseen or hide in its nearby shadows, then your home is less attractive to thieves and it’s absolutely easier to defend your home and avoid being surprised. A good 30 to 50 feet of clearance is desirable, and that’ll help you defend your home against fire as well. 2. Concrete Planters Strategically place these monolithic, decorative pots and you’ll be sure to stop or at least slow most vehicles. Alternatively, you could create foot-high concrete-based flower beds that will also stop vehicles while offering even less concealment value to intruders. 3. Trenches Deep ditches with steep walls can also stop vehicles, but properly used serve to route excess water around your property. You could also put one directly around your home, which would make the climb into a window more difficult for possible intruders and give you firefight coverage. Just make sure you don’t create a solution where someone could be hiding out right by your front door as you approach it. Whether done around the perimeter of your property or just right around your home, a steep trench can also give you the medieval joy of filling a moat around your house if a wildfire springs up in your area. Just remember than the fighting lads in the World Wars took cover in trenches for a reason, so don’t prefabricate an excellent defensive position for your potential enemies. 4. Hedge Rows Hedges are an ancient, proven, and aesthetic barrier that definitely slows and perhaps even harms those who attempt to go through them. These could be done around the perimeter of the property and also along vital access routes so that all those who enter don’t have an easy way to approach from an unexpected angle. For example, instead of having easy approach to your house from all four directions, you could use hedges to block off two of them (you’d never want to block off all but one, obviously). Shrubs immediately around your house may prevent attempts at your windows, but will also hinder your escape attempts if you need to flee through a window – so if you go that way, plan for the situation. Generally, defensive shrubs immediately around the structure itself shouldn’t be more than a few feet high because you don’t want people to be able to use them for concealment close to the main building. Something to consider, also, is that vegetation immediately around your house will encourage spider and snake populations around it. Relatedly, trees shouldn’t be immediately around the house in such a way that they can be used to readily gain access to the upper stories. A lot of folks don’t recommend having a thorny hedge around the perimeter of your property because it provides concealment for intruders, but that also depends on your position. For example, if the hedge is at lower elevation than your home it provides less concealment; if higher it provides more. If the edge of your property is significantly distant from your house, then this argument also carries little weight. If you’re currently separating zones of productivity, like your animals from your garden, using regular fences, you should really read this article to see the many advantages of using a “living fence” instead: Living Fences: How-To, Advantages and Tips Possible candidates for defensive hedges include: Raspberry bushes, which bear edible fruit. Remember that if you plant anything that produces edible fruit, more wildlife will be attracted onto your property. Blackberry bushes, which also bear edible fruit. Both these and raspberry bushes can grow to about 10 feet in height. Hawthorn bushes, which also bear edible fruit and additionally have medicinal use. Actually, these grow to trees about 25 feet tall with a fragrant odor. Blackthorn bushes, which bear semi-edible fruit suitable for preserves and in the making of some kinds of wine and port. Japanese Rose isn’t all that multi-use, but is extremely resilient to salt, is attractive, and can grow 4 feet in height in just a year (up to about 7 feet tall). A quick solution, this plant is considered a noxious weed in the U.S., per Wikipedia. It attracts nesting birds. Trifoliate Orange bears fruit that is widely used in Oriental medicine for allergic inflammation. It is hardy in colder climates and so might be a good alternative if you’ve been pretty damn cold recently. Berberis is another thorny shrub that bears edible fruit. Oregon Grape, the state flower of Oregon, has spiny leaves and produces edible fruit. This plant also attracts birds, which some might find pleasant. It grows to about 6 feet tall and 10 feet wide. Firethorn produces fruit that’s edible when cooked and is specifically known for creating dense, impenetrable structures. It can reach a height of 15 feet. Osage Orange is arguably the king of protective hedges. It was widely so used before barbed wire and its wood is excellent for the making of bows and tools. This plant can also be used to make die, burns well when dried, can be used to prevent soil erosion, and produces inedible fruit that repels spiders. I omitted the buckthorn from the above because I’m not aware of any dual usage for it. 5. More Plants If you’re in a drought-prone region, cacti such as prickly pear (which produces edible fruit) are an excellent choice that can be made into barrier walls. Additional candidates include: Bougainvillea vines, which are drought-resistant and could add excellent fortification to an otherwise lackluster barrier. It’ll crawl up about 35 feet! Honey Locust trees tolerate poor growing conditions. Their legumes contain edible pulp also usable for the making of beer, and the legumes themselves are high-protein cattle fodder. Mojave Yucca is a very valuable, spiky desert plant. Fibers can be used for rope and cloth, flowers and fruit can be eaten, and more. Holly gets an honorable mention since it can grow to be quite dense and difficult to penetrate along with some varieties being good for caffeinated teas. Remember just how poisonous this can be to children and pets, though. Bed of Nails has thorns that become worse after the plant dies, and produces edible fruit. Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac aren’t thorny and won’t prevent trespassers unless they know what it is and care. However, since it has a slight deterrent effect and I personally find the thought of inflicting thorns combined with rashes on interlopers to be humorous, it’s dual purpose. At least for me. I omitted acanthus and pampas grass from the above because I’m not aware of any dual usage for them. 6. Exterior Lighting Most attempts to secretively approach a property make use of unlit or ill-lit places. You can use this to your advantage; it doesn’t necessarily mean flooding the whole property with light. Instead, make heaviest usage of your most threatening thorny bushes and cacti in spots you specifically light less than other spots, to encourage possible trespassers to attempt to access the property that way. So, well-light the ill-defended areas and leave the flesh-shredding vegetation poorly lit for people who would choose to walk through them at night without a flashlight. The angle of your lighting is also important. If you position your lights to beam outward from your home, you’ll effectively see intruders who will themselves be blinded by the lights. If you use the standard porch-light, though, you’ll be illuminating yourself and shrouding everything else around you in darkness. You should also remember to keep as many of your exterior lights on separate circuits as possible. Tricking them out with motion sensors and timers are cheap ways to make them even more effective. Also, you probably want to use yellow halogen or sodium vapor bulbs to minimize bug swarming around your house. 7. Gravel Gravel is an excellent way to force people and animals to make noise as they approach. Paving all the access points may make it easier on your tires, but gravel is fairly affordable, can be attractive, and sure does crunch. If you’re not going to put something painful under your windows, gravel at least makes approach noisier. 8. Kennels On warm nights, let the dogs sleep outside. Right by an entryway, where someone would have to pass the sniff test. 9. Beehives Obviously, beehives provide both security and food. Vigorous bee activity may by itself scare off some possible intruders, and you could always rig the hives to be collapsible from a distance in case you wanted a swarm on call. Talk about a nice Swiss Family Robinson style surprise. 10. Pond or Swimming Pool Bodies of water, if deep enough, are an obvious benefit in delaying or stopping both vehicular and foot traffic. Another possible pleasant benefit of a standing pond or pool is your insurance company may lower your fire coverage if the firemen have a readily available source of water near your home. Between the two, a pond is obviously preferable for a prepper since it can support a fish population. Unfortunately, though, standing water is also a great way to breed mosquitos and other unpleasant insect populations. People sometimes say the fish will eat the bugs – and that’s true, but they won’t get all of them. Pure Security Considerations Home security is a very large topic, but here’s a few ideas for things exclusively in that area that you can do fairly cheaply: Tightly space the concrete-filled posts you use for chain-link fences if you want them to offer some vehicle resistance. Consider your space in terms of ways for people to easily and quickly get in and out without being seen. This is what thieves are looking for. Remember that it’s been recommended by police that you don’t block off view or sound of your home from your neighbors, since that isolation can encourage people of ill intent to attempt to access the property and prowling thieves sometimes specifically look for high fencing. Likewise, although we all like our privacy, you need to keep an eye out for your neighbors. If you decide to go against this one, you most definitely need to consider tripwires or other early warning systems specifically for security. Don’t overlook the simple sign as an elegant deterrent. The danger of a dog bite and advisement that the premises is monitored by security cameras are complications intruders before the SHTF probably don’t feel like dealing with. Plan to replace sliding glass doors and large expanses of windows, if you have them. For the smaller windows, you can apply a hardening film to prevent them from shattering and/or you could consider adding storm shutters. Consider getting a hardened, exterior door for usage in the part of the house your family will retreat into if necessary. Most doors inside homes are flimsy and hollow-core, useless for anything more than a second’s delay to anyone who doesn’t care about breaking them. Both internal and external doors should open outward rather inward and have hinges on the inside, to make forced entry more difficult. Read more: Follow us: @SchemaByte on Twitter
580 home survival kits 2/28/2009 SURVIVAL HOMES For a family of five to survive once everything is gone requires only six simple items: a shelter, some blankets, a stove, a kitchen set, a water carrier, a hygiene kit (including a water purification device).
643 Honey, natural medicine, first aid 3/30/2013 Within wounds, honey not only destroys bacterial infections, it creates a moist healing environment that allows skin cells to regrow naturally.
71 How to properly fit hiking boots 6/16/2007 Finding a proper fitting pair of boots is well worth the time, effort and money. To help you find the right boot, here are some fitting suggestions: Try on footwear later in the day. Your feet expand slightly from walking or standing, and you will have a better sense of the boot's fit in the afternoon or evening. If you wear orthopedic devices replace these with the insole when testing boots. Try on boots with the socks you will wear when hiking. Sock weight often corresponds to boot weight, lightweight socks for light hikers for example. Proper hiking socks are crucial to comfortable hiking and preventing blisters, so invest in socks to match your activities and intensity. When boot shopping, ensure you test various brands. Each company builds boots on a different last and they all have varying values on boot: flexibility, width, arch support, padding, and so on. Trying on various brands is crucial to finding boots to match your feet. To determine proper fit, begin by inserting your foot into an unlaced boot. Stand and push your toes to the front of the toe box. Next, try to slide your finger behind your ankle while keeping your toes as forward as possible. You should be able to fit one finger comfortably between your heel and the heel cup. If you plan on carrying heavy packs, two snug fingers would be a minimum. Do this test for both feet as they can vary in size, until you find an appropriate length. To check the width, bang your heel into the back of the boot and lace it up. The edge of the tongue and eyelets should run parallel, or move slightly outward, from toe to the boot top. If the edges get closer, the boot is likely too wide for your foot. Excess material hanging over the sides of the sole is another sign that a boot is too wide. Another method for determining fit of length and width is to remove and stand on the insole. Observe how much room is between the sock and the edge of the insole. Too much or too little is a sign of a bad fit. Properly breaking in boots is an important step before attempting long or difficult hikes. Once you have a few pairs of boots selected, it's time to start walking. Walk with full strides and feel how the boot moves. "Is your arch supported?" "How does the leather bend above the toe box?" "Are any areas constrictive or too loose?" If you notice discomfort, move to another pair. Minor annoyances will lead to major discomfort after miles of hiking. When walking pay attention to your heel. There should be minimal lift in your heel and if it is moving a lot you need a smaller size or a different style. Adjusting the lacing tension when walking can sometimes make a difference but major tension alterations indicates the boots do not properly fit. Next, walk up and down an incline, or slant board (if available at the store). If your toes strike the front of the boot, you need a larger size; the hitting will be compounded if carrying a pack. Try stairs and any other surface that may mimic the trails you intend to hike. If possible, walk for a half hour with the boots on, paying close attention to how they feel. Once you've found a pair that your comfortable with, take them home and wear them around the house several times to verify the fit before breaking them in on the trails.
20 Hunger: Rabbit Starvation 12/20/2006 Rabbit starvation is particularly well known in the Far North according to Bradford Angier. In his book, How To Stay Alive In The Woods, Bradford states, "An exclusive diet of any lean meat, of which rabbit is a practical example, will cause digestive upset and diarrhea. Eating more and more rabbit, as one is impelled to do because of the increasing uneasiness of hunger, will only worsen the condition. The diarrhea and the general discomfort will not be relieved unless fat is added to the diet. Death will follow, otherwise, within a few days. One would probably be better off on just water than on rabbit and water."
615 Hydration: drinking water in winter 12/10/2010 Drink enough Your pee should look nearly clear. Thirst is often a good guide, but beware: 2004 research found cold weather dampens the thirst response. Hikers typically need three to four liters a day, but that varies with temperature and exertion level. Sip every 15 minutes; the body absorbs small, frequent amounts more efficiently. Replace electrolytes with sports drinks or salty foods. Signs of dehydration: headaches, dizziness, and confusion.
553 hypothermia: What to do if your clothes become wet 10/9/2008 Predicament: You're hiking alone and crossing a knee-high stream on a cold, rainy day when you slip on a mossy rock and fall backward into the icy water. You reach the opposite bank–but you, your clothes, and your pack are totally soaked. Lifeline: Your biggest worry is hypothermia, which can kill in temps as high as 50°F when you're wet. Strip down, wring out clothes, then put them back on (if you don't have dry ones). "The water in dripping wet clothing will suck the heat out of your body much more than damp clothing," says Gordon Giesbrecht, PhD and the co-author of Hypothermia, Frostbite, and Other Cold Injuries. Wring out the rest of your clothes and layer them on, saving waterproof gear for the outer layer to protect from wind and rain. Make a fire, if possible. If not, pitch your tent and take shelter. Get on top of a sleeping pad to insulate from the cold ground. If your sleeping bag is synthetic, wring it out completely and get in (a wet down bag loses its ability to insulate). Maintain body heat with food and exercise until the weather improves enough to walk out. Snack on foods with sugar, fat, and protein (like gorp with chocolate), sip a hot drink, and do sit-ups or push-ups in your bag.
517 Ice Axe 3/30/2008 Selecting an Ice Axe: Focus on the fit and feel of the tool in your hand. Check length While wearing mountain boots, rest your arm against your side and measure from the tips of your fingers to the floor. The ice axe should fill that gap. Grip the head This bridge connects the pick and the adze (the hoelike chisel). You'll hold it more often than you hold the shaft, so make sure it fits securely in your hand. Tweak the leash Wear winter gloves when trying out axes so you can size the wrist loops.
518 Ice Axe 3/30/2008 Maintain an Ice Axe: Keep it clean and its points concealed. Maintain it Ward off rust by wiping off the head after use and applying a thin film of WD40. Protect the point Cover the spike to prevent punctures; use the axe guard, or an old sock and rubber band.
519 Ice Axe 3/30/2008 Attach it to your pack: First, slide the shaft down through the axe loops (with the pick pointed inward toward the pack's center). Then flip and twist it 180 degrees so the pick is facing the opposite direction. Secure the shaft with straps.
520 Ice Axe 3/30/2008 Self arrest grip: Hold the axe head with your uphill hand, adze forward. Place your thumb under the adze, and your palm and fingers around the pick. If you start slipping, grab the lower shaft with your free hand, raise the axe with the adze just above your shoulder, then plunge the pick into the snow by throwing your weight over it.
521 Ice Axe and it uses 3/30/2008 Step-cutting With your side to the slope, and grasp the axe with your uphill hand. Use the adze to skim away the snow to make a level platform large enough for a boot or a weary backside. With practice, you'll be able to work the swings into your natural gait: swing, step up; swing, step up. Crevasse sweep To check for chasms, poke the snow in a 180-degree arc in front of you. Sagging snow is a clear indication of danger, as are differently shaded pockets and seams. Scan with your eyes before you check with your axe. Snow anchor Sink the axe into the snow up to its head, and tailor the shaft's angle to the steepness of the slope. On a shallow incline, angle the axe a few degrees away from the direction of the pull. On a steep slope, the shaft should lean back to within 45 degrees of the snow.
657 insect protection 5/4/2015 get away from water sources if at all possible. in addition go ahead and put mud on your exposed skin which will help stop mosquitoes from biting you.
532 itching medical 4/29/2008 Calm the itch if the biting buggers still manage to get to you. We've heard of two multipurpose remedies for use in the field: Make a paste of baking soda and water, then dab it on the bite; or, rub on a bit of Preparation H ointment.
548 KISSWEP: 8/28/2008 K.I.S.S.W.E.P. (Alaska Marine Safety Education Association.) Know and recognize...... Inventory..... Shelter..... Signal ..... Water ..... Eat..... Play
528 Knife 4/29/2008 Find a knife that is strong and can be used for several tasks. You should beable to pound it on the spine with wood to split other pieces into kindling with out damage.
529 knife 4/29/2008 When spliting wook for kindling with a knife, I use a leatherman crunch to hold the target wood. If I miss, I do not cut off my fingers.
591 Land Navigation, Compass, Leap Frog 4/18/2009 In featureless terrain, like large open meadows, heavily treed forrest or in blizard conditions where you can not see very far, use the leap frog tactic with a compass. Here is how it goes. ............................Use a hiking partner as intermediate objects. Send them forward as far as possible and wave them into position along your course. Then leapfrog ahead. Give them the compass as you pass so they can repeat the leapfrog.
581 Lighting survival tip 4/2/2009 Setting up a tent in a lighting prone area...............First of all, you want, of course, to set your tent in the safest possible spot. That means not out on open ridges or in places where your tent sits higher than anything else around. A low spot in low rolling terrain is considered generally safe, as are spots near boulder fields where no boulder sticks up obviously and attractively higher. During the storm, it is almost always safer to stay in your tent, sitting up on your pad and not touching the ground. Dome tents may be slightly safer than tents that rise to points. In the end, it is always safer to drop below treeline to camp during lightning season.
656 lightning survival 5/4/2015 in a lightning storm get away from the hilltop or any tree that is standing by itself. move away from an open meadow. you do not want to be the tallest object around.if there are borders around get between the boulders as low as possible to the ground.
7 Location 12/16/2006 Always make sure that someone knows where you are going and when you're planning to come back. If something goes wrong, they will know to alert the appropriate authorities.
565 Lost 12/20/2008 Basic rules if you are lost. 1: Relax do not panic. If you are lost and alone in the wilderness sit down and stay put until the fear, anger, and or frustration has gone from the system. Collect your thoughts. What do you have that can help you in this situation? Your mind is your greatest survival tool! 2. Check your survival kit or take inventory of what you have with you or your group. Be sure that you know how to use everything that is in your survival kit. Take an inventory of your mind, remember what you always thought you would do if you got lost. What wilderness survival skills have you learned? 3. Look around, where to stay? Is there an open area so the searchers can see you? 4. Create your plan of action.Figure out what order you will do things in. Be sure that you do not overcomplicate things. If you are lost in the early spring or late fall, or are at a higher altitude, keeping warm should be your number one priority. Find or make a shelter against the weather. Build a fire for heat and signaling. Find water. Signaling to attract attention. If injured, first aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in. Remain positive, this is a real survivor challenge but you do have the ability to survive. 5. Stay in one place, and wait it out. Do not wander around. If you told someone where you were going then people are probably looking for you. The primary reason you should not move once you realize you are lost is historically people who are lost and alone in the wilderness continue to move, move further away from where they should be. After several days of waiting to be rescued you may decide that no one is looking for you, in this case you must attempt to find your own way to safety. To be able to navigate both with and without map and compass is an important wilderness survival skill. Conclusion: Teach your family, children and your friends. If lost and alone in the wilderness these simple survival rules can save lives.
566 Lost 12/20/2008 If lost STOP. Use this acronym to help you survive. S: stop think and relax. T: think about your situation. Think where you are. Think what you need to do to survival. Think how you can imporvies. Go by the rule of 3's. O: obsreve your surroundings, assess you survival items and items with you. Observe locations for shelter, signaling, area safety (avalanche conditions) P: make a plane to survive and be found. Take care of the rules of 3. Exposure, fire, water, signaling and then food.
75 Making water in winter. 7/31/2007 Roll up a 48oz NALGENE Cantene and stuff it in a survival kit. When out in snow country, fix a neck strap to the Cantene, wear it under your parka and refill it with a little bit of snow each time you drink. The small amount of snow will melt while not making the rest of the water too cold, and you'll always have fresh water. Drink water often: if your tongue hits your knees when you walk, you haven't been drinking enough.
560 Map and compass travel 11/14/2008 Keep careful track of where you are and turn around regularly to study your route from above. On the way down, things may seem different, especially in bad weather.
45 Medical: Tooth Ache 1/7/2007 Asprin and Tylenol#3 is better for tooth ache. Oil of cloves.
44 Medical: Tooth Ache 1/7/2007 A toothbrush and floss are a good idea on any backpacking trip (floss can also be used as fish line and to tie things together if need be). If you forget a toothbrush, you can chew the end of a dogwood twig until it is brush-like, and use that. This is about long-term care, of course. What if you have a toothache that starts when you are days away from your car?
43 Medical: Tooth Ache 1/7/2007 Avoid doing anything that can cause toothaches or other dental problems while backpacking. Ie. corn chips instead of corn nuts etc.
42 Medical: Tooth Ache 1/7/2007 don't ever go on a long backpacking trip if you have an unresolved tooth problem, or even the hint of a toothache starting. Go to your dentist and get it taken care of. If there is lingering pain, be sure to also get a prescription pain reliever to take with you.
79 Military field manuals 8/26/2007
593 more fire starters ideas 9/9/2009 These are other ideas to use for fire starters that you can make at home. * Use pine cones covered with wax.** * Pack charcoal in paper egg cartons and tie shut. When ready to use, just light the carton. * Put a piece of charcoal in each section of a paper egg carton. Cover with melted wax.** Tear apart and use as needed. You can also use sawdust, dryer lint or Pistachio shells instead of the charcoal. * Take 100% cotton balls and thoroughly rub Vaseline into them. Keep in a ziplock bag. * Newspaper cut into strips(3"-4" wide). Roll up and tie with string. Cover with melted wax.** * Use lint from your dryer as a fire starter. * Bundle about 10-12 Diamond brand "strike-anywhere" wooden kitchen matches together with waxed dental floss. The heads of the matches should all be pointing in the same direction. Generously soak the buddle of matches (except heads) in melted paraffin wax** to waterproof and to provide a long burn time. Dip heads lightly only to waterproof them. Simply strike on flat rock to ignite. * Cut a cotton cord into 1" lengths and soak in melted wax.** Let dry and store in empty film container or ziplock bag. * These are called candy kisses. Use the small 6" emergency candles and wrap them up in waxed paper. Tie/twist both ends of the waxed paper to seal in the candle (looks like a salt water taffy candy). Light an end when you are ready to start your fire. * Cut waxed milk cartons into strips to be used as kindling for your campfire. * Stuff paper towel or toilet paper rolls with paper. * To get your charcoal pieces ready quicker, use a charcoal chimney. * Newspaper crumbled into a ball * Use dried pine needles * Soak a piece of charcoal in lighter fluid. Coat with wax.** * Use small condiment or "sample-size" cups. Add a long wick to each cup and fill with melted wax.** You can also fill them with sawdust. * Stack of small pieces of cardboard covered in wax** * Waterproof your matches by dipping them in wax** or coating them with clear nail polish * Use cotton string about 3-4" long, put in wax paper bathroom cup with about an inch hanging over the edge. Fill cup nearly to the top with saw dust and pour melted wax into the cup. The saw dust will compact and become waterproof. The extra string length is a wick to start burning the starter, but can also be tied to another starter string through a pack loop to carry outside your pack. - Submitted by C. Berman * Keep a plastic "twister" type of pencil sharpener handy. It's great for shaving kindling (especially if wood is damp) * Use wooden ice cream/popsicle sticks. Keep them in a watertight container. * Unraveled twine * Take an empty toilet paper roll and tie some tissue paper onto one end with some twine. Fill roll with sawdust, cotton balls, etc. Tie the other end as you did the first one, but leave some string hanging out. Put candle wax on the string. * Use old tuna or cat food cans. Wash & dry. Cut long pieces of cardboard about 1 1/2 inches wide. Roll these into tight spirals. Pour empty cans about half full of wax. Insert cardboard spirals and let the wax set.
579 mosquitoes bug attraction 2/26/2009 Q.} Does dark-colored clothing really attract more mosquitoes then light-colored clothing? **********A.} A: Yes, sir, mosquitoes are more attracted to people in dark clothing than in light-colored clothing. ‘Skeeters use sight, smell, and heat to find a blood meal, and those people that study mosquitoes agree that the bugs see dark objects more easily than light objects.
664 most important survival tool 5/4/2015 the most important survival tool you can have with you is your mind and your wits. you must be able to calm yourself within the first 3 seconds realizing you are in a situation. from there you have 3 minutes in order to survive without air. from there you have 3 hours to find or seek shelter if you are in a harsh environment. the environment could be from freezing cold to extreme hot to infestation with bugs and other critters. you can survive three days without water. you can survive three weeks without food. Plan accordingly and to these rules of 3 but remember none of this works unless you are able to calm yourself and think through your situation. Survival is a state of mind.
573 mountain lion tracks 1/15/2009 IDENTIFY A MOUNTAIN LION TRACK Heels: Cougars have three lobes on the hind edge of the heel pad, while dogs have just two. Lion tracks also have two points on the leading edge of the pad; dogs have a single leading edge. Front toes One of the cougar's middle toe pads is in front of the others. A dog's toe pads are side-by-side. Claws Lion tracks don't show claw marks, unless the cat was running. Dog tracks usually do.
523 Never surrender your weapon ( Gun ) 4/16/2008 Think you have a better chance at surviving by listening to an assailant's orders? Think again. You have an 85% chance of surviving a handgun shooting if you are on the move. Gain some distance from the suspect - most hand gun shootings occur at less than 7 yards. Of those shootings, only 11% of an assailant's bullets actually hit the intended target. What if he appears to be a professional marksman? Surprisingly, only 25% of police bullets hit the intended target. And unlike the movies, most of these winners have little to no firearms training AT ALL. You want to give your gun up? What kind of chance do you stand when he turns your gun back around and manages to shoot you in the head? How do you react then? What form of protection will you be left with? One of the hottest issues in law enforcement today is whether or not you should give your gun up to a suspect who has the drop on you, or is holding a hostage. You could be in the camp that considers the views of Officer Survival expert Ron McCarthy unjustified. You would argue that his views are biased, and outdated. You could even believe it is impossible to predict what you'd do unless you are faced with this situation. Well, do yourself a favor - don't wait until that time to decide whether or not you will surrender your gun. You wouldn't want to enter into a deadly situation unarmed, would you? So, why would you give that option up? If you ever plan on living through that deadly encounter - you'd better heed this warning and HOLD ONTO YOUR GUN. Give up your gun?! You didn't earn a badge by being last in your class, so don't start acting that way now. If the suspect has you at gunpoint, or has taken a hostage, there are several other things you can do rather than give up your firearm. BUT what if there are innocent hostages? If you give up your gun, you might as well add one more unarmed, underpowered, vulnerable individual to the group. This suspect is clearly intent on causing serious harm or death. What convictions are you acting upon if you believe by giving up your gun you are saving another's life? Are this thug's words something you would trust your LIFE with? Surrender your gun and you stand just as defenseless as those you are attempting to protect. BUT what if you're not in a position to run? React decisively and forcefully. Force him to react to you. Get him to start talking and when he blinks, begins to reply to you, or is distracted in any way, use that as your opportunity. In the three-quarters of a second that it takes him to react to you, you could disarm him and shoot him. On the other hand, you hand over your weapon, and you stand in a position of attempting to protect yourself against an armed fugitive with what? A quick right and a left jab?? That's less than "tying with a suspect." The only thing more foolish would be if you took a time out to give him some shooting lessons, and THEN handed him your gun to use - on you. BUT what about the cops who handed over their gun and made it? For all of those who have lived to tell their war stories when they surrendered their guns and lived - they're lucky. But what about those who didn't? If someone orders you to give up your gun or they will shoot - don't fall victim to this threat. If he's crazy enough to threaten an armed, trained, LE officer, he's probably stupid enough to try and shoot you either way. You only have 2 options in this situation: You must disarm him or shoot him. How can you expect to accomplish this without your gun? Let's hope you never find yourself in this type of situation. If you do - we want you to do whatever you can to survive. Experts like Ron McCartney stress to NEVER give up your gun, and for good reason. There are too many better alternatives that have proven effective, time and again. And if you follow the fallow myths swirling around out there, you might end up as one - and that's probably not the legend you had in mind, is it?
626 packing a back pack 5/15/2012 Loading a pack for proper weight distribution and balance take a bit of practice but the better you get at it, the more comfortable you’ll be on the move. For starters, you’ve got your tent in the wrong place. It’s one of the heaviest items in your pack, and it belongs a little higher up and closer to your spine. If your packbag is too small to hold your tent, you’d be better off strapping it across the top of the pack rather than the bottom, so that it’s weight can settle down onto your hips, rather than hang below them and throw you off balance. Same goes for all heavy items like your food bag and clothes bag: Pack them at around shoulder to mid-back level and as close to your spine as possible. Some other packing tips: Load your sleeping bag first, cross-wise into the bottom of the pack. You won’t need it until the end of the day and it provides a nice, stable base for your pack. If you use a hydration system, load that in next. Most packs have pockets meant for holding a bladder, but if yours doesn’t you can just lay the pack flat (shoulder straps facing down) and slide the full bladder into the pack along the frame. While keeping the pack flat on the ground, continue packing gear in around the bladder to hold it in place, until you can stand the pack up without the bladder slumping to the bottom. If you have a compact air mattress, pack it inside your pack as well. Few things suck more than a punctured mattress, and packing it inside is way safer. Closed cell foam pads can be strapped across the outside bottom of your pack: they’re indestructible and virtually weightless, so they won’t throw you off balance. Stuff your puffy jacket and raingear down the sides of the pack, taking up the space left by the bulkier items. Keep sharp, pointy and delicate items deep inside the packbag and padded with softer items. This not only protects those things from damage, it also prevents abrasion against the fabric of the pack. Use the top lid and other external pockets to stash items that you’ll use during the day: snacks, maps, sunscreen, headlamp, and water treatment. And lastly, avoid strapping a ton of stuff onto the outside of your packbag. (It’s a very common mistakes among novice backpackers.) It’s better for your balance, you’re less likely to get hung up on branches or briars, and your gear stays safer and drier. If you’ve got more than a few things strapped to the outside of your pack, it probably means you need one with more internal volume.
600 paiute deadfall trap 9/12/2009 This trap is similar to the figure 4, but has the advantage of a more sensitive, "faster" trigger. Again, the upright should be positioned well out from under the lip of the weight and the bait—on the crossbar—well beneath it . . . and the trap itself will be most effective if located near an area of game activity but not actually in a well-traveled run. As you can see in the accompanying photos, a piece of string, sinew, or woven cordage will be needed to construct this trap (some threads unraveled from clothing and twisted together will usually work quite well). The Paiute is more difficult to set up than are the other two traps described here, but it's also the most effective of the bunch.
604 PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL 3/5/2010 Develop a survival pattern that lets you beat the enemies of survival. This survival pattern must include food, water, shelter, fire, first aid, and signals placed in order of importance. For example, in a cold environment, you would need a fire to get warm; a shelter to protect you from the cold, wind, and rain or snow; traps or snares to get food; a means to signal friendly aircraft; and first aid to maintain health. If injured, first aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in. Change your survival pattern to meet your immediate physical needs as the environment changes. As you read the rest of this manual, keep in mind the keyword SURVIVAL and the need for a survival pattern.
636 pistol revolver sights 12/19/2012 Sight It You have to see the front sight to get hits. Coloring the sight or replacing it with one you can see is a very good idea. In the case of revolvers with fixed, non-replaceable front sights, a touch of paint or colored nail polish can be used to add color and make seeing the front sight easier and quicker. Replaceable front sights are available in colors ranging from red to fluorescent green and big, white, easy to see, glow in the dark night sights are available from XS Sights.
637 pistols revolver ammo 12/19/2012 Feed It You can shoot wax, plastic and rubber bullets, birdshot, target ammunition, full powered hunting and defensive ammunition and multiple projectile loads in wheel guns. As opposed to semi-automatic pistols, revolvers are not picky about bullet shape. This variation in ammunition makes revolvers the most versatile of handguns and lets you choose exactly the load you need for any specific purpose. I carried several different revolvers during my years with the Border Patrol. They never let me down and helped me get through my share of adventures. A good revolver won’t let you down either – if you haven’t tried one maybe you should consider it.
638 pistols revolver cleaning 12/19/2012 Clean It Revolvers need to be kept clean and sparsely lubricated, as excessive lube attracts dirt. I learned this lesson while patrolling the border astride an off road ATV with a .357 Magnum strapped to my hip. Dirt, and especially sand, can put a revolver out of action by making it difficult to open and close the cylinder or by keeping the cylinder from rotating freely. If you carry a small revolver in a pocket it won’t take long for lint to work its way into all the nooks and crannies but it can be removed quickly with a toothbrush or blown out with compressed air. Revolvers usually require only routine barrel and chamber cleaning. Unless put in heavy service under harsh conditions, it is rarely necessary to disassemble and clean the internal parts of a revolver – I would guess most revolvers are never disassembled. One other caution: don’t squirt oil or solvent down into the action thinking this will help clean it or smooth the internal parts. It won’t, and will cause crud to stick to the oil and build up quickly.
635 pistols revolvers grip 12/19/2012 Grip It How you hang onto the revolver during firing has a lot to do with how well you can control the trigger and keep the sights on target. Especially in DA shooting, a strong grip is necessary to keep the sights aligned while the trigger is moving. This is best accomplished with the thumbs locked down, one over the other. This grip also avoids allowing the support side thumb to line up with the barrel/cylinder gap and be damaged by escaping gases as might happen with a “thumbs forward” grip.
578 pitching a tent 2/26/2009 *****At-home prep***** Pre-rig the guylines on each side of the tent before leaving home so they can be quickly attached to a single stake. 1) Tie one end of a 10-foot nylon cord to an outer guy loop, then thread it through a small O-ring. Making sure to leave slack in the cord, pull it through the middle guy loop, thread it through the O-ring again, then tie to the last guy loop. If there are only two loops, tie each separately to the O-ring. 2) Tie one end of a 15-foot cord to the O-ring. When pitching the tent, loop the cord around a stake and secure it with an adjustable knot, such as a trucker's hitch–which is easy to tie and untie even while wearing gloves. *****Setup****** Pick a sheltered site away from any depressions where water might pool. If your tent has pole sleeves, shield it from rain by throwing the fly over the tent before sliding poles into place. (This is much more difficult with tents that clip to poles.) Orient the tent so its narrow end takes the brunt of the wind, then immediately stake down corners to keep it from blowing away. Keep guylines taut to increase waterproofing and reduce condensation. *****Takedown***** Detach fly but leave the tent covered; remove and disassemble poles, then gently pull the tent out from under the fly and stow. Shake excess water off the fly, then store it in a garbage bag or separate stuff sack to prevent it from soaking the tent canopy.
105 Positive mental attitude 2/13/2008 All the good that God supplies is continual, present and evident. Ask Him, He’ll show you!
104 Positive mental attitude 2/13/2008 God: Guides, guards, governs, protects and provides.
108 positive mental attitude 2/13/2008 Consider this enduring promise from God in the Bible: “I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.”
107 positive mental attitude 2/13/2008 Vanquish fear. Do not be afraid of spiritual faith. Try hard and pray harder.
103 positive mental attitude 2/13/2008 none of God’s children is ever stranded or separated from His goodness.
106 positive mental attitude : fear 2/13/2008 fear never is a help to us; that fear becomes a big distraction actually, where it keeps us from focusing on what the answer to the problem really is.
58 Practice 3/2/2007 Do not just read these tips, practice them. Do it in the rain, snow and wind. Remember practice makes perfect.
653 prep survival for earth quake 5/4/2015 after an earthquake you should be able to survive for two weeks before help can arrive.
41 Preparing for Back Country 1/1/2007 learn techniques for preserving body heat, even in extreme cold, and ways to detect hypothermia. People often underestimate the power of the mountain.
40 Preparing for bad weather camping or outting 1/1/2007 Practice fire-making in the rain before going up to the mountains.
631 prepper skills 11/27/2012 No matter how much I beg, some of you, no doubt haven’t done anything to prepare (you know who you are). I don’t know what else to do. All I can do is give you the information, it’s up to you to act. No one can do it for you. No doubt some of you are intimidated by my repeated suggestions of storing and using whole grains. If it doesn’t come from the supermarket shelf it’s strange and unfamiliar and you want no part of it. Fair enough. But you still need to prepare. Here are ten things that you can do right now that will make you better prepared than probably 90% of the population. And everything is available at your local shopping center – so it’s easy. You can do all ten steps at once or divide each into a separate week and shopping trip. But you need to get it done as soon as possible. Keep in mind that this is only a starting point and isn’t presented here as a completed list. 1. Head to the nearest Wal-mart, Kmart, Costco or whatever and pick-up 20 lbs of white or brown rice and 20 lbs of pinto beans. White rice has a better storage life while brown rice has more nutritional benefits – your choice. 2. While you’re there grab 5 lbs mixed beans, 5 lbs of white sugar, 5 lbs of iodized salt, one gallon of olive oil (can be frozen to extend shelf-life), 5 lbs oats, 10 lbs each of white or wheat flour and cornmeal. 3. Now head over to the canned foods and pick-up 20 cans of canned fruits and 20 cans of canned vegetables. Be sure to buy only those brands and contents you normally eat and nothing exotic. No need to shock the senses. 4. Now over to the canned meats. Pick-up 20 cans of various meats, salmon, stews, spam and tuna. Again buy only those brands with contents you normally eat and nothing exotic. 5. Okay. Now to the to the peanut butter shelf and toss two 40-ounce jars in the cart. The listed shelf life is just over two years and each jar has over 6,000 calories. Peanut butter is an excellent instant survival food. 6. Over to the powdered drink mix – go on I’ll wait…Okay, pick up two 72 Ounce Tang Orange drink canisters (provides 100% of the US RDA vitamin C requirement per 8 oz. glass). Also grab six 19-Ounce Containers of Kool-Aid Drink Mix. 7. Off to the vitamin and supplement aisle, pick up 400 tablets “one a day” multivitamin and mineral supplements. I buy this brand at the local Wal-Mart - comes in 200 count bottle for $8 each. 8. Now to the department we all love – sporting goods. Go to the camping aisle and pick up 4 five gallon water containers. Fill with tap water as soon as you get back home. 9. While you’re there buy 250 rounds of ammunition for your primary defensive weapon. More if you can, but this should be a good start. Also a good universal cleaning kit. 10. And lastly pick up the best LED flashlight you can afford, extra batteries and bulb. Also grab two boxes of wooden matches and several multi-purpose lighters. Don’t forget to date, use and rotate – remember first in first out. Let’s get started. Include honey, hydrogen peroxide,
582 purifying water with UV 4/2/2009 Everything inside the bottle dies, but, no, the droplets of water in the threads and on the outside of the bottle are not disinfected by a UV light device.
609 pushup pullup workout 3/24/2010 Here is a question from a Marine Reservist wanting to max his PFT of 20 pullups: "Where can I find your pull-up routines outlined? I am stuck at about 7 pull-ups and would like to get to 10-12." After the unbelievable success from the "Push-up Push Workout," in which people doubled their pushups in two weeks, I performed the same test on pull-ups with (young and old) students with similar success. This workout works best on folks who can do 3-10 pull-ups. Many increased their pull-ups to 10-20 in two weeks. Here is what you need to try for a two-week period: - Do your regular workout program, but for 10 straight days do an additional 25-50 pullups. - If you are only able to do less than 5 pull-ups: do 25 pull-ups for your daily plan below: - If you can do more than 5 pull-ups: do 50 pull-ups for your daily plan below: Odd Days (Supersets OR Pyramids): Supersets (repeat 10 times): - Pullups - max - Pushups - 20 - Dips - 5-10 - Abs of choice - 30 Pyramids (see PT Pyramid article above) - Pullups - 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,6,5,4,3,2,1 rest with - Pushups - 2,4,6,8,10,12,14....2 - Abs of choice - 5,10,15,20,25,30,35....5 - Alternate with NO rest from one exercise to the next Even Days: 25-50 pullups anyway you can throughout the day or in a single workout. Do small repetition sets until you reach 25- 50 pull-ups. Rotate for the next ten days from odd day workout options and even day pull-up supplement, then take three-four days off from doing ANY pull-ups. Test on day 14 or 15 and let me know your results. Good luck with the Pullup-Push Workout. Push yourself and you can quickly perform better on your pull-up test. You can fit this type of program into your present workout plan by just adding 25-50 pullups on your rest days so you do a ten-day routine of pull-ups.
651 quick tarp shelter 2/28/2015
622 repair silicon tarp 3/29/2011 Grab yourself a Sil-Fix Sil-Nylon Repair kit for about 7 bucks. It includes Sil-Fix adhesive, several patches (for backing larger tears and holes), a brush, and a detailed repair guide. From there, it’s really simple. Just paint the Sil-Fix over small holes and let it cure for at least two hours. For larger wounds, place an adhesive patch on the back side and paint over the whole area with the adhesive, extending at least 1/4 inch beyond the edges of the hole. You can then remove the patch after it has dried or leave it in place for extra insurance. This a permanent, waterproof fix that will render your pack cover as good as new!
3 Rules 12/16/2006 Rules of 3. You can survive 3 minutes with out air, 3 hours exposed to the elements (Cold), 3 days without water, and 3 weeks with out food. Prepare accordingly.
633 sanitation wilderness survival 12/3/2012 Places to poop must be selected, excavated, covered to elininate disease from spreading.
52 Shelter 3/1/2007 When you're choosing a spot where you'd like your campsite to be, try to take into consideration how the elements are going to come into play with your relative comfort. Exposed areas are definitely to be avoided, as winds can sweep your warmth away and pile up snow against your tent. Likewise, stay away from valleys where the cold air will sink down and prevent you from staying warm. A flat location is always ideal, but do make sure that your tent isn't in an avalanche zone or underneath a tree. Heavy snow can bring branches crashing down on top of your shelter.
550 shelter 9/25/2008 If it isn’t raining, a quick survival shelter for warmth is a pile of dry leaves, grass, braken ferns or other plants. One can sleep warmly in the middle of it (half the insulating grass above, half below) with just a jacket, despite below freezing temperatures.
660 shelter fire bed 5/4/2015 I heated bed can be made by using the following procedures. with the number one campfire take the coals out and put them into another excavated hole. the hole should be as long as your body about 3 feet wide at about four fingers deep. has the fire in the number 1 fire pit burns the wood take the coals from that pit and put him in the next pit continue this until you have colds throughout the entire pit or a fire. spread out the coals and place the dirt on top of this to about 7 finger with thick now you can sleep on this for the night as the heat rises it will keep you warm.
662 shelter location 5/4/2015 in selecting the shelter site a shelter should not be in a flooding area it should not be on top of a mountain top but should be located somewhere in between. use natural features that can be used as walls if at all possible. make sure the shelter is free of poisonous plants and poisonous insects as well as other animals. my shelter should have some type of insulation off the ground during the winter. my roof on a shelter will help keep the heat in and the shelters should be as small as possible but large enough to accommodate the number of persons needing to use the shelter.
661 shelter using fire 5/4/2015 1 fire will keep you warm but if you build a fire behind you and sit between both of them this will help keep you even warmer during the cold nights also it will help keep bugs and animals away. put fires do not have to be large. if you cannot be able to fires try to build a bonfire and have a reflective wall behind you. a better way would be to have your back toward a reflecting wall the fire and another reflecting wall so you between both walls current one wall or both walls could be a natural feature like a log wall or a boulder wall. the idea is to keep the heat reflected back to your position.
25 Shelter: Pitching a tent 12/27/2006 Pitch your tent or tarp wrong and the rain will come in, or the wind will tear the seams. They need to be pitched tight, and you should be able to do it in a few minutes. Practice in the yard.
555 Shelter: primary consideration 11/14/2008 Your primary shelter is clothing. In your pack carry an insulating layer, wicking layer and a exterior weather layer. A warm hat should always be carried to stop heat loss.
70 shelter: snow cave 5/31/2007 If you find your self in a situation where staying put for the night is the best way to ensure your safety, and you do not have a tent or overnight gear, a snow cave heated with a candle from your repair kit, will help you survive the night in relative comfort. Find a safe spot-You want to avoid any potential avalanche slopes and any windward slopes where blowing snow could seal you in the cave. Try to find some type of small slope or bank with snow at least six feet deep. A slope is much easier to dig a cave on than the flats. Try to stay dry-take turns and work slowly but efficiently to avoid excess sweating. Dig the entryway-tunnel into the slope about three feet and then begin angling and excavating upward to clear a living space. You need to leave the cave ceiling at least one foot deep to keep it from collapsing. Put the cave floor above the top of the entry tunnel to trap warm air inside. Make the ceiling and walls smooth so melting snow will run down the walls and not drip on occupants. Punch a ventilation hole in ceiling, and cover the entrance if possible with a tarp or extra gear. Get inside your emergency blanket or bivy and sit on your pack to stay warm. Light the candle from your repair kit and try to remember your best jokes.
554 shelter: space blanket 11/14/2008 The reflective side of a space blanket will divert the sun's rays in the desert and retain body heat in cold conditions.
655 shelters 5/4/2015 a backpack itself can be used as a shelter. it can be used as a half sleeping bag by placing your feet and legs inside the backpack. remember your primary shelter are your clothes. constantly improve on building your shelter if you are in a survival situation
14 Signal Smoke 12/18/2006 Smoke is easily seen by day and a fire or flashlight by night. On a cloudy day, black smoke is more visible than white; the reverse is true on a sunny day. White smoke stands out well against a green forest background but not against snow. Black smoke can be produced by burning parts of a vehicle, such as rubber or oil, and white smoke by adding green vegetation to a fire. The lost person who anticipates an air search should keep a fire going with large supplies of dry, burnable material (wood and brush) and have a large pile of cut green vegetation close-by. When an aircraft is heard, the dry materials are placed on the fire, allowed to flare, and then armloads of the green vegetation are piled on top. This produces lots of smoke and a hot thermal updraft to carry it aloft.
10 Signaling 12/18/2006 Quiet Riot to the rescue. You can signal an aircraft flying between you and the sun using a CD. Line up the aircraft in the hole and flash, ideally in a series of three.More detailed information on
542 signaling from your vehicle 6/26/2008 Put the hood up on your car and tie a rag to the antennae. Wearing bright colored clothing will help aircraft see you better.
562 Skill: warm hands and feet 11/14/2008 If you're plagued by cold toes and fingers, try a technique commonly used by cold-loving mountaineers. Briskly rotate your arms windmill-style, and quickly swing each leg forward and back. Centrifugal force will move warm blood to your chilly extremiti
81 sleeping warm 9/8/2007 Heat water and put the heated water bottles into you bag. Smaller nalgene bottles work well. Make sure they do not leak.
102 snake bite 11/11/2007 If you or someone in your party is struck by a poisonous snake, better safe than sorry: Get to a medical facility. Administering antivenin is the only successful treatment. Longtime folk remedies like giving the person whiskey or the old "cut-and-suck" method (slicing the bite with a knife and sucking out the poison with your mouth) only make the victim's condition worse. For the hike out to the car, immobilize the bitten extremity with a splint, and if possible, carry the victim to the trailhead. If you can't carry the person, he'll have to hike out on his own. It takes at least 2 hours for the symptoms of envenomization to take effect. Watch for signs of shock (heavy sweating, clammy skin, shallow breathing), since the fear of having been bitten is often more dangerous than the bite. When the victim is more than a day's hike from the trailhead, the only field treatment recommended by wilderness medicine experts is the Sawyer Extractor. Dave Hardy advises using two of the suction cup extractors simultaneously to remove venom from both fang punctures. If applied within 5 minutes of the incident, the extractor may help reduce envenomization, but it is no substitute for professional medical care.
603 solar water stills 3/1/2010 Solar Still Water Purification How To Posted by Survival Skills at Sunday, February 28, 2010 How to Make a Solar Still to Purify Water A solar still uses the power of the sun to purify water. The sun's heat evaporates water, and the vapor leaves contamination behind. Once the water vapor hits the top of the solar still, it condensates and slides down the lid into a collection basin. A solar still is one way to purify water. A still is easy to make and good for use in a wilderness survival emergency. * Shovel * Water bottle * Sheet of plastic * Rock Step 1>>>>>>>>>Select a damp place open to the sunlight. A damp location generates more purified water, so find a spot that water runs into. Dry stream beds, bottoms of hills and places near water sources make good locations. Step 2>>>>>>>>>Dig a 3-foot-deep hole. You want to dig into moist soil, because the moisture from the ground will become the potable water. Add vegetation, contaminated water or urine to the hole to add moisture. Remember, a solar still purifies any water; so even urine will be drinkable. Step 3>>>>>>>>> Place your water bottle into the center of the hole. To support the bottle upright, you can push dirt around its base. Step 4>>>>>>>>>Cover the hole with a sheet of plastic. Seal the edges of the plastic sheet with dirt and rocks. Make sure the plastic is taut and the seal airtight. Place a rock in the center of the plastic and over the bottle. The sheeting should bend to a point over the bottle. When the moisture evaporates, it condensates against the plastic. The condensation slides toward the rock and drips into the bottle. Step 5>>>>>>>>>>>>Wait two hours, a solar still will purify one quart of water in two hours. Drink your purified water and reset the still to make more.
76 Some rules for exploring the Back Country 7/31/2007 1. Carry proper gear. 2. Know how to use your gear. 3. Know your limits. 4. Have the right attitude in tough situations.
99 Sponge 11/11/2007 sponges are versatile, compact, ultralight, and dry (almost) with a squeeze. Among their many uses: to wipe up spills or leaks in a tent, clean gear, dry off a ground cloth, and bathe far from a stream (Leave No Trace style!)
525 sprained ankle medical 4/29/2008 Sprained Ankle Relations How to keep hiking when your ankle takes a turn for the worse. Plus, keeping them strong and trail-ready. by: Buck Tilton Here's one you can probably relate to: The sun's about to set and you're scrambling for the best seat to catch the show. Exhilarated by the impending beauty, you run, you leap, you crash. Tweak goes the ankle. As the sky fills with hues of pink and orange, your ankle turns shades of blue and purple. The pain is so bad you can barely limp back to camp. Or maybe you're crossing a stream and slip on a rock or encounter a big root across the trail or aren't paying attention on a downhill switchback-there are so many ways to harm the joint that connects foot to leg that ankle sprains account for almost 53 percent of injury-related evacuations from National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) courses. The good news is that most sprains can be managed in the field. Even better is the fact that for the ankle-aware, such painful calamities are largely preventable. ANATOMY OF A SPRAIN The two big bones in your lower leg, the tibia and fibula, meet your ankle at the talus bone, which sits atop the calcaneus, or heel bone. A complex arrangement of ligaments holds it all together, and under normal conditions the ankle can withstand some eversion (turning outward) and inversion (turning inward). When an ankle goes too far one way or the other, a sprain results. In severe cases-during a leap, or when plunging downhill under a load, for instance-the tib and fib can be forced apart and ligaments are torn, which causes excruciating pain. Whether you're the injured one or you're trying to help someone else with a bum ankle, assessing severity is relatively simple. Which way did the ankle twist? Was there force involved? Was there a "popping" or "snapping" sound? Has the ankle been injured before? Now study the ankle. Is there swelling or discoloration? How much? Is there pain when you press on the ligaments, tendons, bones? Tenderness means injury. Carefully move the ankle through its range of motion. Again, is there pain? As with most traumatic injuries, ankle sprains have three levels: A first-degree injury, the most common type, occurs when ligaments stretch but don't actually tear. Moving your foot and the damaged ligaments causes pain, but there's little swelling, bruising, or instability. With proper care and taping you can keep hiking and will be back to normal in one to two weeks. With a second-degree injury, partially torn ligaments quickly swell and cause bruising. The pain may discourage you from moving your foot, and complete healing can take as long as six weeks. A moderately injured ankle can also be taped, but only so the person can limp back to the trailhead, with most of the weight from his backpack distributed among other group members. Walking will be difficult but tolerable. Third-degree injuries involve complete ligament tears. Bruising may be extreme and within 30 minutes of the injury you won't be able to move your foot because of the intense pain and swelling. An ankle that's injured this severely can be confused easily with one that's broken (symptoms can include a "pop" or "snap" when the injury occurred, persistent intense pain, tenderness when touched, and an obvious deformity). Whether it's a third-degree sprain or a break, the injury requires splinting and immediate medical attention. Third-degree sprains can take six months or longer to completely heal, and 10 to 15 percent of those afflicted may require rehabilitative surgery. To reduce pain and swelling, all ankle injuries should initially be managed with RICE: REST the injury; in other words, make the person get off his feet. ICE the ankle; cool it with packed snow, soak it in a cold mountain stream, or wrap it in a wet T-shirt. COMPRESS the injury with an elastic wrap (if available) to reduce swelling, working from the toes toward the heart. Never wrap so tightly that circulation is impaired and the injured person loses feeling in the toes. ELEVATE; prop the leg up higher than the person's heart. Maintain RICE for 20 to 30 minutes, then allow the injured ankle to rewarm for 12 to 15 minutes before letting the person try to use it. RICE may be repeated every 2 to 4 hours for the first 24 hours. Over the next 48 hours you'll want to maintain compression and apply ice three to four times a day. Doctors typically recommend an anti-inflammatory/pain-killing drug, such as ibuprofen, for sprains and tendonitis. To help speed recovery most physicians now recommend that patients use a sprained ankle as soon as possible, depending on the severity of the injury. It may be a day or two, however, before the person is willing to walk very far, and of course, the injured person is the one who should ultimately determine if an ankle is usable. If you prefer the preventative approach, there are several things you can do to forestall an ankle injury: Strengthen muscles: The best way to prevent injury is to get in shape by running, cycling, and swimming-preferably with fins-to help strengthen ankles. Lose weight: Excess pounds put stress on your ankles. Wear good boots: Choose stiff footwear that provides adequate ankle support, and replace soft, worn-out boots. Warm up muscles: Before shouldering a pack, put your hands on a tree and lean against it with one leg forward, one leg back. Lock the back knee, and flex the front knee. Press forward until you feel a stretch in the calf muscle (it attaches to the Achilles tendon) of your back leg. Now keep both heels on the ground and bend both knees until you feel more stretching in the lower leg muscles. Hold for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat with your other leg back. Walk around packless to warm up all leg muscles. Learn from the past: If you've suffered a prior ankle injury, follow the first four suggestions even more aggressively. Don't be careless: Avoid becoming rushed, don't hike after dark, and always watch where you place your feet when hiking. TENDON TROUBLE When your feet and ankles move, so do the lower leg muscles and tendons, which are the fibrous tissues connecting muscle to bone. If you're not in the best shape and try to hike too far too soon, inflammation of tendons can result. Tendonitis can range from discomfort to debilitation, depending on the degree of inflammation. Achilles tendonitis can occur after a long hike, especially when significant elevation gain is involved, because the lower the heel is in relation to the toes, the greater the stress on the Achilles. Your boots can also be the cause. An inward fold above the heel counter can irritate the Achilles enough to cause tendonitis after just one day of backpacking. Broken down or poor-quality boots that allow too much motion and not enough support may lead to pain and inflammation. Similarly, footwear that's too stiff or too tightly laced can result in tendonitis at the front of the ankle. Treatment includes placing a quarter-inch-thick pad under your heel to relieve stress on the Achilles. A strip of padding-small pieces of a closed-cell foam sleeping pad or folded gauze will do-taped on each side of the Achilles will further reduce stress. As a general rule, placing padding on both sides of any injured tendon will reduce stress and discomfort.
8 stay calm 12/16/2006 Stop Think observe Plan Act
572 Stay dry in down pour shelter 1/15/2009 STAY DRY IN A DOWNPOUR Pop an umbrella and open every vent and pit zip. Make sure the cuffs of your baselayer aren't exposed, or they'll wick moisture up your sleeves. Keep your jacket hem cinched snugly and shield your face by pulling your hood over a billed cap. In wet brush, wear rain pants over gaiters. Don't get wet from the inside out. If you're overheating, minimize sweat by shedding layers or slowing your pace.
24 Staying Warm 12/27/2006 There are tricks to staying warm. Shed layers as you get warm, for example, so you don’t have sweat to chill you later. Use wind-blocking shell clothing, and wear a hat. Eating fatty foods before sleeping can keep you warmer.
74 Stop Water Freezing in cold weather 7/31/2007 When hiking in freezing weather with your NALGENE liter bottles, make sure to store bottles upside down in your pack to prevent ice from freezing your bottle shut. Ice will float to the bottom of the bottle rather than blocking the mouth.
630 Storage Containers , garbage can 11/14/2012 A garbage can can make a great and inexpensive storage container. It it one can place garbage bags, freezer bags, visquene, duct tape, matches, propane cylinders (small), 5 gallon buckets, tarps, cordage/ paracord, flash lights, batteries, food, large pressurized spray jug which can be painted black to heat the water with the sun, blankets, fire starter, water purification system (your choice),bleach ,hand cranked radio, ammunition, sleeping bags and what ever other items you think you may need. it is fast and easy to take with you.
623 Survival a Nuclear incident 4/7/2011 How to Survive a Nuclear Attack or Accident Seek shelter immediately. If you are in the vicinity of a nuclear detonation or the accidental release of radiation, seek shelter immediately. The majority of people killed at Hiroshima did not die from the thermal blast but from radioactive particles in fall-out. Stay underground for 48 hours. The deeper underground you can go, the safer you will be. Try to find a basement or subterranean garage with a concrete roof. Radioactive energy dissipates to 1/100th of its initial strength within 48 hours so stay in your temporary shelter for a minimum of two full days, longer if possible. Take potassium iodide tablets. The thyroid gland has an unusual capacity to absorb large amounts of radiation, which can be fatal; but potassium iodide tablets, such as RadBlock, saturate the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine so that it cannot absorb radiation. Take these tablets as soon as you learn of a nuclear incident.
644 Survival bread, survival food 4/4/2013 Survival bread, also known as hard tack, pilot bread, ship biscuit or sea bread, was used throughout history during wars, on long sea voyages and in other survival situations where an inexpensive food was needed that would keep indefinitely. Survival bread is still baked and eaten today by survivalists, hikers and campers who need a long-lasting food source that doesn't require refrigeration. Many bread ingredients, such as oil, sugar, butter and milk, significantly reduce the shelf life of bread. For the longest-lasting survival bread, follow a very simple recipe that uses only flour, salt and water.-----------------------------------------------------------------------Instructions 1 Turn on the oven and preheat it to 400 degrees. Wash your hands thoroughly. 2 Pour 4 cups of flour and 4 teaspoons of salt into a mixing bowl. Mix them together with a spoon. Sponsored Links Watch How-to Videos Expert how-to videos for everything around the home. 3 Add water to the flour and salt mixture, a little at a time, while you mix it by hand. The mixture should stick together but not to your hands or the rolling pin. The idea is to use as little water as possible to achieve this. 4 Roll out the dough with the rolling pin, shaping it into a large rectangle, until it's about 1/2 inch thick. 5 Cut the dough with the knife, creating squares that are 3-by-3 inches. Poke each square with a clean nail without punching completely through the dough, making a 4-by-4 pattern of holes. Repeat this hole pattern on the other side as well. The holes will enable you to break the bread easier once it's cooked. 6 Put the bread dough on an ungreased cookie sheet and place them in the oven. Bake the dough for 20 to 25 minutes. The edges of the bread should be lightly browned. 7 Wait until the bread is completely dry before removing it from the oven. Store the survival bread in a closed container away from moisture. Read more: How to Make Survival Bread |
624 Survival candle, emergency lighting 2/9/2012 Make a survival candle out of a can of Crisco. Open can and place a wick in the center. A can can last up to 45 days.
642 survival candle, survival light 3/20/2013 Crisco Candle for emergency situations. Simply put a piece of string in a tub of shortening, and it will burn for up to 45 days.
557 Survival Kit 11/14/2008 It is suggested that a mountain or backcountry survival kit be samll enough to fit into a fanny pack and that fully equipped backpackers carry the fanny pack kit seperate and wear it all the time.
538 Survival kit 6/26/2008 A survival kit must be small enough to carry at all times in the wilds. By cramming them full of unnecessary items they get too bulky and tend to get left in the car, backpack or elsewhere, which is the same as not having one at all.
544 survival kit ideas 6/26/2008 Soap dish container 1 Mark III knife 1 strip magnifier 1 signal mirror 1 flint striker 1 small lighter (childproof to prevent leaking) Tweezers Fishhooks & sinkers Snare wire Fishing line 1 large needle Cord 1 pencil stub 2 bouillon cubes 1 condom* Sterile scalpel blade Sugar tablets 1 vial potassium permanganate** 1 signal whistle Mini-Mag® flashlight and spare AAA battery 1 button compass 1 tea bag*** 2 alcohol wipes**** 3 Band-Aids 2 plastic bags Instructions with blank side for notes Picture of the kids Card with a prayer of comfort by Saint Francis ADD: Benadryl, Tylenol and any other personal medications needed *Traditionally included as a water bladder, but better to store items that need to be kept dry such as tinder. ** Used for water purification, anti-septic, anti-fungal. When mixed with crushed sugar tablet, it can be friction ignited to start a fire. *** Use black tea cooled down for sunburn relief. **** Besides being antiseptic, they will ignite with sparks from flint striker.
556 Survival kit ideas from Backpacker mag 11/14/2008 Survival Kit Make your own backcountry survival kit. by: Annette McGivney For just a few bucks, you can build a "Lundin special" that'll get you out of all kinds of trouble. Fold everything neatly, pack efficiently, and the whole 3 pound 14 ounce kit and caboodle will fit inside a standard fanny pack. The survival kit is intended to supplement the regular contents of a hiker's pack. It should be worn at all times and separate from the backpack. Don't leave camp without it. Here's what you'll need: One each of gallon- and quart-size zipper-lock bags for holding water and building stills; the bags should have wide mouths so you can skim for water and reach into crevices. Tincture of iodine to disinfect water; use five drops per quart. 2 condoms to use as canteens. Plastic drinking tube (3 feet long) for drinking from stills or crevices. Orange flagging tape to mark your route or write a message. Dental floss (100 feet); a tough string for many uses. Duct tape (3 feet); get the strongest variety available. Mini flashlight with spare bulb. Extra flashlight batteries with date marked; replace every 12 months. Magnesium block with striking insert; carry a minimum of three means of starting a fire. Cigarette lighter; get a bright color so you won't lose it. Strike-anywhere matches dipped in paraffin. Firestarters; cotton balls saturated with petroleum jelly and stuffed in a film container pack the smallest, but you can also use chips or other dry, fatty foods or even dryer lint coated with paraffin. Magnifying glass for signaling and fire starting. Glass signal mirror with sighting hole and a whistle. Light space blanket for shelter and signaling. Heavy-duty space blanket with grommets and reflective side for shelter and signaling. Three heavy-duty, plastic leaf bags; use as a rainsuit, shelter, tube tent, tarp, or for collecting rainwater. Military parachute cord (50 feet), 550-pound test. Extra knife; should be all-purpose with a fixed, double-edged, carbon-steel blade that can throw a spark. Brightly colored bandanna; doubles as a pot holder, hat, and water filter. Basic first-aid kit; contains wound dressing, moleskin, antibiotic ointment, and other items. Topo map and compass.
64 Survival kit: build your kit 3/10/2007 Determine what size kit you want to carry, then decide on what you’ll pack everything into. This can be a tin, a waterproof container, or a soft case such as a belt pouch, waist pack, or backpack. For mini kits, I usually prefer a tin, like the kind that Altoids come in; since you don’t have room for a cup, you can use it to boil water. To make a mini kit, select the smallest components from each group. Be innovative when choosing items. Repackage them compactly if necessary, and whenever possible, select things that can perform more than one function.
654 survival kits 5/4/2015 survival kit should be carried in your pocket and in a pouch in your backpack.they should be made waterproof.survival kits should include your 10 essentials.
63 Survival kits: pick your tools 3/10/2007 Choose at least one component from each of the groups below. Some items can meet the requirements of more than one. Fine-tune your selection to match your location or the season, and remember that you may want more than one item from certain categories. For example, I always bring at least three ways to start a fire. Fire and Light: matches, disposable lighter, flint and striker, magnesium fire starter, tinder, candle, and a magnifying lens. For the latter: flashlight, headlamp, and chemical light sticks. Shelter and Personal Protection: survival blanket, poncho and rain gear, tarp, tube tent, parachute cord, headnet, hat, extra clothes, sunglasses, sunscreen, lip balm, and bug repellent. Water and Food: basic needs are water purification tablets or a filter, and a water container. Add snare wire and fishing kits for food collection, plus emergency rations, a small cup or pot, and a small stove. Signaling: signal mirror, whistle, smoke signals, flares, dye markers, and emergency strobe. Navigation: compass, maps, and GPS unit. Knives and Tools: knives, saw, trowel, and shovel. Medical: first-aid supplies for wound management, like bandages and first-aid ointment. Plus antibiotics, pain medicine, and personal medications. Multipurpose: aluminum foil, wire, duct tape, large garbage bags, bandanna, surgical tubing, zip-seal bags, dental floss, sewing thread and needles, glue stick, and safety pins can all fill more than one function. Miscellaneous items include a survival manual, knife sharpener, thermometer, pencil and paper, toilet paper, and a cellphone.
62 Survival kits: Think about skills 3/9/2007 Focus not on the components but on the tasks you’ll want them to perform. In a survival situation, you’ll need to do most of the following: build a fire, construct a shelter, get and purify drinking water, gather food, signal for help, navigate back to civilization, and administer basic first aid. Once you know what types of functions you must be prepared to carry out, you can select the proper items.
82 Survival Mind Set. Most important survival tool to have!! 9/18/2007 Survival is all about common sense. You sit down and think. You don’t panic. Think about where you are, what you have and what you need to do to solve your problems
586 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Food: Most commentators note that Food is not usually urgently needed in survival situations because a human can survive for several weeks without it. However, they also note that in extreme cold lack of food can be dangerous, and in other situations hunger, like gradual dehydration, can bring about many consequences long before it causes death, such as: Irritability and low morale Weakness Loss of mental clarity, such as confusion, disorientation, or poor judgment Weakened immune system Increasing difficulty maintaining body temperature (see Heat exhaustion and Hypothermia) Many commentators discuss the knowledge, skills, and equipment (such as bows, snares and nets) necessary to gather animal food in the wild through animal trapping, hunting, fishing, and how to gather plant food to maintain a balanced diet. Some survival books promote the "Universal Edibility Test"[14]. Allegedly, one can distinguish edible foods from toxic ones by a series of progressive exposures to skin and mouth prior to ingestion, with waiting periods and checks for symptoms. However, many other experts including Ray Mears and John Kallas[15] reject this method, stating that even a small amount of some "potential foods" can cause physical discomfort, illness, or death. An additional step called the scratch test is sometimes included to evaluate the edibility of a potential food. Focusing on survival until rescued by presumed searchers, The Boy Scouts of America especially discourages foraging for wild foods on the grounds that the knowledge and skills needed are unlikely to be possessed by those finding themselves in a wilderness survival situation, making the risks (including use of energy) outweigh the benefits. [16]
583 Survival skill or Tactic 4/13/2009 Shelter: Shelter is any thing that protects a person from his/her environment, including dangerous cold and heat and allow restful sleep, another human need. Shelter ranges from natural shelter such as a cave or thickly-foilaged tree, to intermediate forms of man-made shelter such as a debris shelter or a snow cave, to completely man-made structures such as a tarp, tent, house, or clothing.
590 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Mental Preparedness: Commentators note that the mind and its processes are critical to survival. It is said that the will to live in a life and death situation often separates who lives and who does not. Stories of heroic feats of survival by regular people with little or no training but a strong will to live are not uncommon. Laurence Gonzales in his book, "Deep Survival: Who Lives, Who Dies and Why" describes the story of a young teenage girl who is the victim of a plane crash in the Amazon jungle (most probably Juliane Köpcke). With no formal training and only her confirmation clothes, she walked through the jungle for several days with parasitic insects boring under her skin and no food, she reached a village and got help. She was the only one amongst the group who survived the actual crash to live. Gonzalez believes that her simple and indestructable will to live made the difference.[20] So stressful is a true survival situation, that those who appear to have a clear understanding of the stressors, even trained experts, are said to be mentally affected by facing deadly peril. It seems that, to the extent that stress results from testing human limits, the benefits of learning to function under stress and determining those limits may outweigh the downside of stress. After all, stress is a natural reaction to adverse circumstances, developed by evolution to assist in survival - at least, in terms of brief, perilous encounters (such as being caught in the middle of a natural disaster, or being attacked by a wild animal.) If stress lingers for a prolonged period of time, it tends to produce the opposite effect, impeding one's ability to survive. In particular, the commentators note the following adverse effects of stress: forgetfulness, inability to sleep, increased propensity to making mistakes, lessened energy, outbursts of rage, and carelessness.[21] None of these symptoms would seem to make survival easier or more likely. E.B. Motley contends that being faced with a need to survive, there are 7 emotions that arise and must be overcome: Fear - Once one recognizes a survival situation, one of the initial reactions noted is fear. It is said to be a perfectly normal reaction; however, fear is pictured as the enemy - the "mind killer," that can drastically lessen ability to make clear decisions. This, in turn, is said to lessen the chances for survival. In an effort to minimize one's fears, it is suggested to train in realistic situations to condition oneself to have a "hard-wired" positive approach to setting survival priorities and getting busy meeting them. This trained reaction can instill confidence that one can overcome fear and do what must be done. As one example, individuals with a phobia of insects, the outside, the darkness, etc. will need to work to overcome these fears enough to perform survival tasks and meet their survival needs, such as gathering firewood in a wilderness setting and sleeping in such a setting. Anxiety – Typically, anxiety and fear appear to run hand-in-hand. Anxiety may start as an uneasy feeling in the pit of one's stomach, but by the time the fears are added into the mix, anxiety may quickly spiral out of control. Anxiety will often take over the mind and quickly make it difficult to make rational decisions. Anxiety is portrayed as a serious barrier to focusing on the tasks at hand. It is noted that, typically, once some of the critical survival needs have been met, anxiety will be easier to keep at bay. Panic - We are warned that if fear and anxiety are left unchecked, panic will set in. Panic will lead to impulsive actions and loss of self control and may lead to dire consequences, including death. Anger – One can imagine that it is, more or less, inevitable that in a survival situation there will be problems. With the endless possibilities of things that can go wrong and probably will, it is not surprising to read a prediction that tempers may flare in such a context. But anger, it is said to sap one’s energy, rationality, and will to live. Finding other ways to channel this emotion into constructive work will, whether in a long or short term survival situation, seems more useful to the commentators than losing one's temper. Depression – An overall sense of depression is noted as common in wilderness survival situations, especially if alone. Overwhelming depression is said to lead to the body shutting down, and not unlike anxiety, causing one to give up hope. Staying positive and staying constructively busy is suggested to combat depression. It seems that while humans are physically trying to improve their lives, by means of building a fire, making shelter, gathering water or food, there is less tendency to become depressed. Guilt – Often accompanying a survival situation is some loss of life. Those immediately surviving, but still in peril, may feel guilt, we are told, both due to taking responsibility for the death(s) or from a sense of guilt simply because they are alive and the other person is dead. This is called survivor's guilt. The commentator's note that such a state of mind should be combated by maintaining a positive outlook, and possibly using religion to help deal with the pain following another's death. Boredom and Loneliness – An often unanticipated side effect of being in a survival situation, boredom and loneliness are both said to contribute to lowering morale. The commentators suggest that it is important that the survivor keep his or her mind busy and spirits up. [22]
589 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Training: Survival training has many components, mental competence and physical fitness being two. Mental competence includes the skills listed in this article, as well as the ability to admit the existence of a crisis, overcome panic, and think clearly. Physical fitness includes, among other abilities, carrying loads over long distances on rough terrain. Theoretical knowledge of survival skills is useful only if it can be applied effectively in the wilderness. Almost all Survival Skills are environment specific and require training in a particular environment. Survival training may be broken down into three types, or schools; Modern Wilderness Survival, Bushcraft, and Primitive Survival Techniques. Modern Wilderness Survival teaches the skills needed to survive Short-Term (1 to 4 Days) and Medium-Term (4 to 40 Days) survival situations.[17] "Bushcraft" is the combination of Modern Wilderness Survival and useful Primitive Survival Techniques. It normally splits its skill acquisition between Medium-Term Survival Techniques (4 to 40 Days) and Long-Term Survival Techniques (40 Days Plus).[18] Primitive Survival Techniques or "Primitive Living" teaches the skills need to survive over the Long-Term (40 days plus). Many primitive technology skills require much more practice and may be more environment specific.[19] Several organizations offer wilderness survival training. Course ranges from one day to field courses lasting as long as a month. In addition to teaching survival techniques for conditions of limited food, water, and shelter, many organizations that teach bushcraft and Primitive Survival seek to engender appreciation and understanding of the lifestyles of pre-industrialized cultures. There are several books that teach one how to survive in dangerous situations, and schools train children what to do in the event of an earthquake or fire. Some cities also have contingency plans in case of a major disaster, such as hurricanes or tornadoes
584 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Fire: The ability to start a controlled fire is recognized in the sources as to significantly increase the ability to survive. The skills required to light a fire without a lighter or matches, such as by using natural flint and steel with tinder, is a frequent subject of both books on survival and in survival courses. There is an emphasis placed on practicing fire-making skills before venturing into the wilderness. Fire is presented as a tool meeting many survival needs. The heat provided by a fire allows the body to be warmed, wet clothes to be dried, water to be disinfected, and food to be cooked. Not to be overlooked is the sense of safety and protection it gives. Fire may deter wild animals from interfering with the survivor, or wild animals may be attracted to the light and heat of a fire. The light and smoke emitted by a fire can also be used to work at night and can signal rescue units.
585 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Water: It is noted that one can survive an average of three days without the intake of water assuming you are at sea level, at room temperature, and a favorable relative humidity.[7] In colder or warmer temperatures, need for water is greater. Need for water also increases with exercise. A typical person will lose 2-3 litres of water per day in ordinary conditions, but more in hot, dry, or cold weather. It is said that four to six litres of water or other liquids are generally required each day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep your body functioning properly.[7] The U.S. Army survival manual recommends that you drink water whenever thirsty.[8] [9]Other groups recommend rationing water through "water discipline".[10] A lack of water causes dehydration, which may result in lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even mild dehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous in a survival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine is a diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority is typically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water making provision to render that water as safe as possible. Many sources in survival literature, as well as forums and online references, list the ways in which water may be gathered and rendered safer for consumption in a survival situation, such as boiling, filtering, chemicals, solar radiation + heat/SODIS, and distillation). Such sources also often list the dangers, such as pollutants, microorganisms, or pathogens which affect the safety of backcountry water. Recent thinking is that boiling or commercial filters are significantly safer than use of chemicals, with the exception of chlorine dioxide. [11] [12] [13] The issues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary water loss by perspiration be avoided in survival situations.
588 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 Navigation: Survival situations are sometimes resolved by finding one's way to safety, or one may need to move to find a more suitable location to wait for rescue. The sources observe that to do either of these safely requires some navigation equipment and skills. Types of navigation include: Celestial navigation, using the sun and the night sky to locate the cardinal directions and to maintain course of travel Using a map and compass together, particularly a topographic map "Navigation by observation" of terrain features on a map or otherwise known Using a GPS receiver, if one is available
587 Survival skill or tactic 4/13/2009 First Aid: First aid (wilderness first aid in particular) can help a person survive and function with injuries and illnesses that would otherwise kill or incapacitate him/her. Common and dangerous injuries include: Lacerations, which may become infected Bites or stings from venomous animals, such as: snakes, scorpions, spiders, bees, stingrays, jellyfish, catfish, stargazers, etc. Bites leading to disease/septicemia, such as: mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, animals,sand flies, infected with rabies, komodo dragons, crocodilians, etc. Infection through food, animal contact, or drinking non-potable water Bone fractures Sprains, particularly of the ankle Burns Poisoning from consumption of, or contact with, poisonous plants or poisonous fungi. Hypothermia (too cold) and hyperthermia (too hot) Heart attack Hemorrage The survivor may need to apply the contents of a first aid kit or, if possessing the required knowledge, naturally-occurring medicinal plants, immobilize injured limbs, or even transport incapacitated comrades.
563 Survival skill: finding water 11/14/2008 How to find emergency water in the backcountry. by: Annette McGivney Staying well hydrated is essential to maintaining physical and mental function, so drink at least a gallon of water per day, and even more in hot environs. One can carry iodine or bleach to purify water, but if you're in a survival mode and can't treat the water, drink it anyway. Better to chance getting sick than risk not living to worry about it. If your supply runs out, climb to a hilltop using as little effort as possible and look for signs of water, especially in the early morning when the water table is at its highest, reflections of pools are easier to spot, and birds and insects often swarm wet areas. Don't overlook dew; early morning moisture on leaves can be soaked up with a bandanna and wrung into a container. Vegetation that indicates water includes cottonwood trees (roots can go 40 to 60 feet down, so you might not be able to dig far enough), willows, cattails, velvet ash, sycamore, mesquite, and bermudagrass. A solar tree still is easy to make. Tie a plastic bag around a group of heavily vegetated tree or bush branches that are exposed to direct sunlight. Rig the bag so that all moisture from the leaves will run down into a weighted lower corner. This yields about 2 to 3 tablespoons in average desert conditions. If you're lucky, you may fare better with an Indian well dug in a sandy wash that drains the area during rain. The hole should be 1 to 2 feet deep and preferably on the outer bend of the wash. It could take up to an hour for water to seep into the hole if it's down there. This method also can be used in coastal regions where no fresh water is in the vicinity. Dig the hole on the inland side of sand dunes. Several wells will improve your odds, and if all you get is mud, wring it out in a bandanna to extract the moisture. When in cold environs, be sure to melt snow before consuming it, because ingesting too much cold stuff can lead to hypothermia.
558 Survival skill: practice 11/14/2008 The Wisdom of Abo Dude To all the techno-weenies with your space-age outdoor gear, Cody Lundin has some advice: For that day when your butt's on the line, you better know how to get primitive. by: Annette McGivney, BACKPACKER Southwest Editor "This is for you?" the sales clerk asked as I discreetly pushed the magazine toward the cash register. Having to crouch in front of the "guns and ammo" section of the newsstand was bad enough--people pretended not to notice me leafing through magazines like Soldier of Fortune. Now I was being put on the spot about my suspicious behavior. "I'm just doing research about, about..." I stuttered sheepishly as she put the camo-adorned magazine in a bag and, with furrowed brow, waited for me to complete the sentence. "I just want to...I think I want to go to survival school." There, I said it. I want to go to survival school. Despite years of experience in the backcountry and hauling myself out of more than a few scary situations, survival school has been on my mind of late. All this talk about Y2K and computers going berserk has me thinking about my dependence on technology and how vulnerable that makes me-not in the city, where ATMs crashing and grocery stores running out of toilet paper are the big techno fears, but in the backcountry. Out there, Gore-Tex, factory-sealed seams, and synthetic fills keep me warm, dry, and safe, but what if something goes wrong? What if a bear drags away my pack? Or my tent and everything in it blow into a crevasse? Or an avalanche or rockslide buries my basecamp while I'm dayhiking? High-tech gear doesn't mean squat when it's unusable-or worse, suddenly not there-and you're 15 miles from the trailhead. "It's the Y2K phenomenon on a backpacking level," according to Cody Lundin, a primitive-skills guru who hikes barefoot and carries little more than a wool blanket on extended wilderness treks. "Most backpackers today travel in a gear bubble. And when your livelihood is totally reliant on modern gear technology, the prospect of that technology failing can be pretty scary." Lundin's words ring true for me. I'm always well outfitted on my wilderness trips, and my comfort and well-being are directly related to that expensive, high-tech gear. But what if...? Could I make it without the contents of my backpack? That's why I have decided to go in search of a wilderness survival school, and how I have come to share a campfire, started more with primitive skill than with kindling, with Lundin. He runs the Prescott, Arizona-based Aboriginal Living Skills School (ALSS), and plans to teach me the survival basics-skills all backcountry travelers once knew but "have lost over the centuries"-during an intensive weekend-long field session. I'm skeptical, of course. Aside from the ultraright-wing, militia-sympathizing stigma associated with many survival schools, there's the Y2K-tainted question of whether such training is just plain bogus and rooted in fear mongering. What could an experienced backpacker not already know? "A lot," says Lundin. This modern-day aborigine (his e-mail moniker is "abo dude") assures me there are Stone-Age techniques and "doing more with less" wisdom that can be lifesaving, even liberating, for today's backpackers. I found some consolation in the fact that his brochure clearly states, "ALSS adventures are not Rambo-style courses." Good, because I'm not interested in being GI Jane or a cave woman. I just want to be a better prepared backpacker. Finding the right survival-skills teacher is more involved than looking for the "Wilderness Survival Schools" listing in the Yellow Pages. The term "wilderness survival," after all, is highly ambiguous and associated with an array of outdoor pursuits. Searching for "wilderness survival" on the Internet yields Web sites dealing with everything from New-Age meditation to storing five year's worth of food to military combat manuals on CD-ROM. The search is further complicated by Y2K-related fears that have fueled a survivalist cottage industry catering to people-many keenly interested in arming themselves-preparing to live off the grid. After wading through all the paramilitary hype, two large wilderness survival schools stood out: Boulder Outdoor Survival School (BOSS) based in Boulder, Colorado, and Tom Brown's Tracker School in Asbury, New Jersey. Both schools harken back to ancient Native American lifestyles and teach primitive skills, such as starting a fire with a bow drill, foraging for food, and making stone tools. BOSS was the brainchild of Larry Dean Olsen, who decided to teach primitive-living skills ("no kit nor any premanufactured items") in the '60s after authoring the book, Outdoor Survival Skills. Similarly, Brown's biography, The Tracker, which details his apprenticeship in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under an Apache medicine man, gave rise to the Tracker wilderness survival school in 1978. (For more on Brown, see "Secrets To Survival," October 1992). Today, both schools employ staffs of knowledgeable instructors, offer a variety of courses, and have slick public relations/advertising agencies representing them. According to BOSS President Josh Bernstein, enrollment at his school has increased 400 percent in the past four years. Brown experienced similar exponential growth, and both say Y2K paranoia had little to do with it. In fact, Bernstein says, the rush has been made up of "well-traveled outdoorspeople." Despite the success and mass marketing of the two popular schools, neither has ventured from its original focus of teaching primitive techniques for wilderness survival. "Traditional living and survival skills immerse you into nature, forcing you to adapt to the local resources and environmental conditions," explains Bernstein. "There's an awakening inside you that says, 'I've made fire like this before. And, I am a part of the natural world.'" I know several BOSS alumni who say they experienced life-altering revelations during the school's arduous field courses. I'm not looking for spiritual awakening, though. I just want to know what to do if my pack sails off the side of a mountain. Which is what has brought me to Cody Lundin. Like many founders of small, regional survival schools around the country, he's a protigi of one of the big two. After completing a 14-day BOSS field course, he joined the school's instructor staff. In 1991, he struck out on his own and founded the Aboriginal Living Skills School. Among his clients are Arizona's Prescott College, an international disaster-relief agency, and the central Arizona Yavapai Apache tribe, who hired Lundin to teach the tribe's youth about their disappearing heritage in primitive skills. What makes Lundin's school different from BOSS and the Tracker School, which teach solely primitive skills, is that he also teaches "modern survival skills." "Primitive skills help get you in tune with and live in the environment. Modern survival has to do with getting out of a bad situation alive," he told me. "About 75 percent of what I teach is modern survival because that's what people want. They have practical, valid concerns and want to know how to get out of a pinch." Lundin doesn't abandon primitive skills. During my telephone research, I learned that he teaches what could be called "street smarts" once commonly practiced by prehistoric people-things like finding water by digging an "Indian well" and knowing the vegetation that indicates water is near. On the other hand, if it's cold and raining and you're near hypothermic, Lundin says rigging a tarp out of a space blanket ("plastic is awesome") is better than spending an hour building an anthropologically correct lean-to out of forest debris. Exactly the kind of survival skills, and attitude, I was seeking. I also liked Lundin's proven history and clientele list, but the deciding factor to go with his outfit was that he lives and teaches in the Arizona desert where I do most of my hiking. Getting stranded in the desert is a different ball game from, say, being lost in the dense forests of New England, and I wanted someone who knows how to tackle my waterless, cactus-filled turf. Despite his credentials and the fact that he's a successful entrepreneur, Lundin, 32, isn't your typical CEO. When he jumps out of his Jeep to begin our hike, his long blonde hair frames his face in two braids. A bandanna covers the top of his head, he sports a nose ring and tattoos, and he's barefoot. Heavy metal meets ancient Native American. If Lundin were standing at a city crosswalk and my mother was sitting in her car at the stoplight, she would nervously lock her doors. But it takes only a few minutes of hiking with Lundin to realize that the derelictlike appearance of abo dude is a direct result of his all-consuming passion for wilderness survival. "This is a lifestyle for me, not just a way to make a living," he says, his thick-padded feet rolling over sharp volcanic rocks and shuffling around prickly pear as we head toward central Arizona's Verde River. He never wears shoes, not even in the snow ("Don't want my feet to get soft"), and I can't help but wince with his every step. "I'm very passionate about doing more with less. That's what primitive living is all about," Lundin adds. During these cushy "modern" excursions, though, he allows himself a few conveniences-Nalgene water bottles, matches, bagels, and, thank goodness, clothes-that aren't kosher on a "primitive trip." While I lug my backpack, he carries everything in a fanny pack. Once we get to the river and set up camp (Lundin merely unfurls his wool blanket), we sit down in the sand. Lundin pulls out a clipboard, draws a bull's-eye, and says, "Everything we talk about over the next few days is in the center of this bull's-eye. It's core knowledge about how to keep your body alive." He taps with a marker near the perimeter of the bull's-eye. "Out here is making moccasins and birch bark canoes. Modern backpackers don't need to know that. But whether I'm Donald Trump or a Tarahumaran bushman, if I'm stuck in a survival situation and I don't know these skills in the center-finding water, starting a fire, finding shelter, making a survival kit, planning ahead, signaling for help-then I'm not going to be on planet Earth much longer." He points again to the center. "This is a very small amount of material to know about living in the wilderness." Like eating bugs? Digging up grubs for dinner and catching fish with your bare hands are probably what most people think when wilderness survival is mentioned, but Lundin says these things aren't core. According to the "rule of threes," you can live 3 hours without warmth in cold conditions, three days without water, but "at least three weeks without food. It's not a priority in a short-term survival situation," he explains. That's why you should be more concerned about hypothermia, "the number one killer in the bush." Clothing is your basic form of shelter, he notes. "Beyond that, you can improvise with items you have in your survival kit, such as trash bags for rain protection and a space blanket for a tarp (see Building A Shelter," in sidebar). Keeping a small fire going is also critical." Central to Lundin's approach to modern survival is his homemade survival kit. Weighing just under 4 pounds and small enough to fit easily in a fanny pack, the kit contains multiple-use items that will help any hiker stay warm, hydrated, and able to signal for help (see "Survival Kit" in sidebar). He recommends that fully equipped backpackers carry the fanny pack kit separate and wear it at all times. After the bull's-eye lecture, Lundin puts me to work, and the rest of the two days fly by as I practice various skills. Call it a survival fire drill. "Your body needs to feel what it's like to build a still," says Lundin as I try to rig a plastic bag over a clump of tree branches. "If you don't get hands-on experience with these skills during a survival course, you might as well just read a book on the subject and save your money." Under Lundin's constant watch and advice, I spend nearly an hour gathering fuel for a small tepee-style fire. I'm allowed only half a single paper match (I peeled it apart at the center to make two), so my fire better ignite easily, otherwise I'm going to freeze. "Some of your kindling is too big. You're going to need smaller twigs," he instructs, looking at my piles of wood. After my fuel supply gets Lundin's seal of approval, I build the tepee. Lundin has me remodel it several times: once so the fuel wood is more closely and evenly spaced, and then to make my fire configuration a little more haphazard. "Fire likes chaos," he says. Finally, it's showtime. I nervously strike the split match and stick the feeble flicker beneath my arched tinder platform. Poof! The tepee ignites as if it were doused with gasoline. I am amazed. Of all the fires I've built over the years, I've never started one without huffing and puffing to keep it going. And it's always taken more than one match. I thought I knew how to build a proper fire, but clearly, I didn't (see "Starting A Fire" in sidebar). Next, Lundin, a self-described "pyro," has me create fire starters. I slather a cotton ball in petroleum jelly, then pull it apart and light the dry center. This ingenious brand of "techno-tinder" burns for 5 minutes. But equally impressive is the Stone-Age-era tinder bundle: a palm-size bird's nest of juniper bark, the center filled with finely ground bark. The bundle burns twice as long as the cotton ball, and, as Lundin points out, it's portable, "like a fireplace you can hold in your hand." Nothing is left to chance. I even practice using the sighting hole on a signal mirror. "You don't want to be lost the first time you try to signal for help," says Lundin as I squint and try to line up the sighting hole with a point up toward a mountain-top. It takes me a few attempts, but I finally hit my distant target with a glint of reflected light (see "Signaling," in sidebar). Although I already know some of the things Lundin covers-for example, layering clothing and carrying plenty of water-discussing them in the context of survival reenforces their importance. Other random bits of survival wisdom, such as how to craft a whistle out of scrap metal and use a condom as an emergency canteen (I stood in the river and filled one with at least a liter of water), I never would have learned without taking Lundin's class. After my days with Lundin, I'm thankful when a backpacking trip goes smoothly and I don't have to use the skills he taught me. And I may never have to, but knowing I possess the knowledge puts me more at ease in remote wilderness areas, especially when my 2-year-old son comes along. Considering the hundreds of dollars I spend each year on "just in case" insurance policies, the quality wilderness survival training I got from Lundin was a bargain. Practicing the skills in the field engraved them in my memory. I'll still pack a stove, but if something goes wrong with it, I know I can start a fire quickly to warm myself. I've learned where to look for water in seemingly dry locations. I have the life-sustaining essentials in the survival kit around my waist. The desert will not do me in, even if my technologically advanced gear fails. You could say I'm Y2K ready, at least on a backpacking level.
85 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn how to stay warm. Practice camping in the yard, to see how blocking the wind, wearing a hat, and eating fatty foods before sleeping can keep you warmer.
86 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn to cook over a fire. It’s not as easy as it seems. Block the wind, cover the pan, keep the fire small and concentrated. Practice, and time yourself. Faster is better in a jam, and it’s always possible your stove will break.
88 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn how to walk. Learning how to pace yourself and how to move comfortably over rocky terrain means you’ll be less tired, and less likely to twist an ankle.
89 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn about animals. Can you tell if a bear is “bluff charging” or stalking you? If it’s the latter, playing dead will make you a bear’s supper. Hint: lots of noise usually means he just wants to frighten you, but you need to read up on this one.
91 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn basic first aid. Can you recognize the symptoms of hypothermia? Do you know how to properly treat blisters? Good things to know. Clear the airway, stop the bleeding and prevent shock.
95 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn to pitch a tent. Do it wrong and the rain will come in, or the the wind will tear the seams. Tents should be pitched tight, and you should be able to set your tent up in a few minutes.
94 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn firemaking. Practice in your yard if you have to, but try to start that fire with one match. Try it the next time it’s raining too.
93 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn to watch the sky. Is that a lightning storm coming or not? It might be useful to know when you’re on that ridge. Learn the basics of predicting weather, and you’ll be a lot safer.
92 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn navigation. Maps don’t help if you don’t know how to use them. The same is true for compasses. Lear how to tell north with a watch, stick, sun rise and setting.
87 Survival Skills 9/18/2007 Learn about edible plants. Knowing how to identify cattails and three or four wild edible berries can make a trip more enjoyable, especially if you ever lose your food to a bear.
545 Survival Starts With A Kiss 7/3/2008 Survival Starts With A Kiss The latest survival smarts By Tom Watson, August 2003 Pucker up and say KISSWEP. While other survival acronyms stall on the tip of your tongue, this tasty lifesaver jumps right out. Developed by the Alaska Marine Safety Education Association, it's easy-to-remember shorthand for a system of seven survival steps taught to U.S. military and marine professionals. Combined with common sense and basic outdoor skills, KISSWEP will save your butt every time. Here's the plan. Know and recognize that you're in trouble. Look around and stay calm. STOP: Stop, Think Obsreve, Plan. Inventory available resources. Scout out a safe camping site, water supply, food, fuel, clothing. Check yourself and others for injuries. Shelter. Anything that protects you from the elements counts. Secure your tarp, tent, or snow cave first so you're prepared to take cover if conditions deteriorate. Small spaces are better if you need to share body warmth. In extreem conditoins you can only survive 3 hours with poor conditions. Signal. Smoke by day, flame by night, bright colors in motion-your signal must contrast with the surroundings. If you build a sign in a clearing, the letters must be at least 15 feet long and 3 feet wide to be seen from the air. Water. Trap it any way you can. If you have food but no water, eat lightly. If you can't treat or boil, drink up anyway; there's medicine for nausea, not for dying. You can go up to 3 days without water. Eat. Don't save it for later-you need energy now. If your supply runs out, forage for bugs or animals; consume only plants you know are safe. Most people can go 3 weeks with out food. You will not be lost that long. Play. Games will keep groups or solo hikers calm and focused. Go for useful contests, like a race to build the largest stack of firewood or the best shelter. Modify accordingly if you're alone. In the end, STAY PUT. Search and Rescue teams will be out to find you. It is easier to find a stationary target than a moving one. For more information go to
539 survival tip 6/26/2008 Brew up a cup of tea. This is a typical Aussie approach to the solution of everything. What you are actually doing is starting a fire, which is needed, and completing a familiar, calming chore. You can brew coffee or just build a fire.
616 Survival tips in a collapsed world 1/1/2011 Here are 10 invaluable skills that will likely help you sustain yourself in a hand-made local world: 1. Organic Gardening and Seed Saving: Skills involving food production will be the most valuable in a post-collapse society. Learning to grow your own food is a must. Obviously, it is necessary to feed your family, but you will also be able to trade your abundance for other items. Additionally, learning to save seeds will also provide another excellent means of trade. 2. Food Processing and Preservation: Learning to process and preserve foods will be another huge skill in a post-collapse world. Taking seasonal abundance and preserving it for future consumption or trade will be vital. Remember, learning to do this with limited electricity is a must. This can also include learning to brew beer, mead, vinegar, or other alcoholic beverages from meager ingredients. 3. Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering: Learning to fish and hunt is essential to survival. Having the proper gear and training will be priceless after the collapse of modern civilization. Having reference guides for edible plants in your region, repairing weapons, trapping wild game, and fishing are great tools to have if you haven’t the time to learn them now. In regards to weapons, your ability to use them also gives you the skill of working security. 4. Animal Husbandry: Notice the first four categories are related to food production. It’s that important. Just gaining knowledge of one of these categories will give you an invaluable skill to thrive in a post-apocalyptic world. Knowledge of animal husbandry can provide endless amounts of sustainable meat, eggs, and milk to you and your tribe. 5. Construction: Construction skills will be very important in a shattered civilization. These skills, especially without power tools, are not something you learn overnight. If you have some basic skills it may be worth learning a few techniques for building small structures with crude hand tools. There are many books teaching anyone how to build basic cabins, sheds, and composting outhouses. 6. Alternative Energy and Fuels: Having the knowledge to implement alternative energy systems will make you a wealthy survivor in a “dark” world. You can learn to build your own alternative energy systems, or you can purchase back up solar generators in preparation for emergencies. There are also small fuel refinery systems available like the biodiesel Fuelmeister, and the new invention from Japan that turns plastic into oil. Knowledge of how to create energy would be invaluable when oil is scarce. 7. Water Purification: Since it’s difficult to pump well water without electricity and with surface water likely to be contaminated, clean water will be in very limited supply. Learning to purify water will allow you thrive during this time. You can also purchase water filters for your go-bag that will last weeks, and you can have back-up tablets should you need them. However, the skill and knowledge to purify water should be the goal as that can never run out. 8. Basic First Aid and Natural Medicine: This is another skill that can take years to develop and learn, but that will be crucial when supply lines of pharmaceuticals are cut off and hospitals are over-run. Knowledge of growing herbal gardens for making medicine at home will prove to be very important. Learning basic procedures for stitching wounds, CPR, and more will also be of great assistance. Being the tribe’s shaman with a natural medicine chest is a prestigious position. 9. Mechanics: Mechanics for cars, motorcycles, tractors and other machinery will likely be in high demand. In addition, bicycle mechanics will also fair well in world where fuel is very expensive or hard to come by. These are also skills that are not learned over night, but it will be wise to at least have access to books or how-to videos. 10. Soap and Candle Making: With long supply lines decimated and electricity on the fritz, soap and candle makers will provide a valuable product. Clearly some preparation of storing raw materials may be needed to achieve trade-able levels of these goods. Even if you just had the knowledge to make soap or candles just for your immediate tribe, you will be much better off for it. You’ll notice that many of these skills also fall into the category of what you would need to be self-sufficient. Again, learning all of these skills will be virtually impossible, especially if the collapse isn’t that far off as many predict. Determine which skills that most appeal to you and focus on them by studying and acquiring the tools needed. Since you can’t become an expert in everything it may be wise to recruit tribe members with various survival skills. It will also be beneficial to build up your library of “how to” books and videos for tasks that you are not proficient in. You can download any video from Youtube by using and build your library into an external hard drive. Remember, knowledge of and skills to produce human necessities will be the only form of wealth creation in a hand-made world. Knowledge is something that no one can take from you. It’s the eternal wealth that will help you thrive in a Post-Collapse world. Get Prepared Now!
54 Survival tool/ knife 3/1/2007 One item that is indispensable on any outdoor excursion is a pocket knife. You can mark your trail by carving a notch ever few feet into a tree or a rock so that if you ever do get lost, you'll have a trail to follow back home. Marking your trail clearly is important, as sometimes it is all too easy to get turned around and end up walking in circles.
620 Survival: A State of Mind 1/22/2011 I ran across this survival article. It is pretty good in pointing out that the key to survival in any situation is your attitude. In the survival/emergency preparedness community, there is an inordinate amount of discussion devoted to exactly what kind of gear and how much each would-be survivor needs to live through whichever approaching cataclysm they foresee. While the nuts and bolts of survival gear are certainly important, it is the intangible aspects of attitude, knowledge and skill that truly separate the survivor from the person who just bought a bunch of stuff. Before you start throwing money into a survival kit, you need to start thinking like a survivor. Perseverance: A survivor must have an attitude of perseverance. If you want to live through a disaster, you must have the willpower to keep going despite hardship and sacrifice. No one wants to find themselves in a survival situation. However, once you are there you must realize that you will have do things that you do not want to do, go places that you do not want to go, deal with bad or broken gear and quite possibly endure pain, exhaustion and other physical ailments. You do this by constantly reminding yourself that every hardship overcome is another step towards the ultimate goal of getting out alive. Positive Outlook: In a survival situation, discouragement can kill you. Setbacks and small defeats can put you in a dark place. Getting depressed in the middle of a disaster is a quick way to get lethargic and sloppy and either one can lead to a fatal mistake. Finding yourself in a life threatening situation is no place to become a pessimist. Keep your mind on the ultimate goal of getting back to civilization and try to maintain a sense of humor. A good laugh can be just what you need to snap yourself out of a funk and get focused. Creativity: What you carry on your back is not nearly as important as your ability to think creatively in an emergency. Survival is often about improvising what you need out of what is available. It is your imagination and ability to think unconventionally that will allow you to provide for your needs even if you left your survival kit at home. Knowledge: Most of us have all sorts of odd facts bouncing around in our heads. If you're thinking about survival, now is the time to forget which shoes Michael Jordan wore in his last game and start accumulating useful knowledge. What plants in your area have medicinal properties and which ones will make you sick? Did you know that a teaspoon of household bleach will purify 5 gallons of water? Do you know how to shut off the gas main in your home? This is the type of knowledge that will keep you alive when doing so is not an easy task. So dump the useless trivia and start stockpiling some useful facts. Skills: The skills you carry into a survival situation are quite possibly the most important thing you will carry. If the only skill you really excel at is finding the remote, now would be a good time to expand your resume and you don't have to go into hock to do it. Many community based organizations offer many useful classes for little or even no money. CPR, first aid, self defense and even emergency preparedness classes are offered at the community level while more advanced classes are offered for a price within the private sector. If you're serious about survival, don't start by buying the biggest survival kit you can afford. Begin by doing a self assessment that looks at your attitude, knowledge and skills and modify accordingly. The things you carry in your head are more important than anything you might carry on your back.
561 Survival: be prepared 11/14/2008 Wear the most weatherproof clothing and sturdiest boots with high-friction soles you can afford, because up high, your life really can depend on your equipment. Carry all the equipment and clothing you'd need to stay overnight unexpectedly. On the Steve Fossett search (September and October 2008), the search coordinator told the search teams that they would be back before night fall and the weather was stable. Most of the teams reduced their pack weight and removed overnight survival items. That night, a storm came in and only one team was prepared. Lesson: no matter what anyone says, keep your survival items with you at all times.
568 survival: drinking urine 1/8/2009 I found this from a doctor. Let's take a step back from the pee bottle. Without water, you start dehydrating and your urine output decreases. In addition, your urine increases in the concentration of waste products (and that's why it gets darker in color). In short, there won't be much urine to drink, and what there is will be bad for you. The SAS Survival Handbook says it all: Never drink urine—never! I agree with this opinion.
559 Survival: lightning 11/14/2008 Don't mess with electricity. Mountains are prone to afternoon thunderstorms. If you hear or feel electricity, get below timberline fast, but don't hang out under the tallest or most lonesome tree. Avoid anything metal, including the metal frame on your backpack. If you become trapped in the open, kneel on an insulated sleeping pad. Don't lie with your spinal cord against the ground and don't seek shelter in a cave or a ditch, because lightning travels across the ground
649 tahoe nordic training outline for children 1/3/2015 Station 1. S.T.O.P. and Observation. The goal of this station is for the students to memorize the S.T.O.P mnemonic and how it should be used. This is accomplished by establishing a scenario where you are lost (this does not have to be in the snow, and in fact is applicable in any situation where you may be lost). "You think you might be lost, you're not sure where you are, what are you going to do? Stop! Why should you stop? Does it help to panic? Don't go further, don't get more lost. Don't panic! Think! Use your head to gather information. Does anyone know where you are? What do you have with you? What time is it? Observe! Use your eyes and ears! The weather: wind, snow, sun, clouds. Landmarks: hills, streams, roads, rocks. Friends: strong, tired, cold? Can you hear cars, dogs, people? Plan! Using all of this information, make a plan. Station 2. Shelters. The goal of this station is to teach the kids how to build a shelter with any available materials. Using ski equipment, tree branches, solid stationary objects (a tree or large rock), and any other items we build a small shelter sufficient enough to stay dry and warm. The kids are then asked "how else can you keep warm?". Exercises, wearing all your available clothes, stuffing pine needles in your clothes, staying out of the wind, don't sit directly on the snow, etc. A small shelter built in the best location possible will go a long way towards keeping you warm and dry. Station 3. Signals. The goal of this station is, once you have built a shelter, to know how to make effective signals to get attention. It's important that you know how to get someone's attention, even if you happen to be resting in your shelter. What can you use and what can you do to let people know you are here? You need to make the area around you look different than the rest of the woods...make yourself BIG and OBVIOUS. Use a whistle (easier than yelling all day long), cross your skis in the snow, stamp out a giant X in the snow, and fill it in with pine needles, hang anything that you are not using in the trees, etc. There are many ideas for signals, and it's always important to think of all the possibilities. By using props, a lot of enthusiasm, asking questions and getting the kids involved, and ensuring their attention throughout, we are able to make the training fun yet also make sure that the kids understand the seriousness of the lesson.
614 Tape Worms : grasshoppers vs. scorpions: survival food 12/10/2010 Survival food: Here's what I think I know: Grasshoppers are herbivores. They can eat tapeworm eggs and larvae, maintain them in their gut, and pass them to you. Scorpions are carnivores with a problem–they can only digest liquid food. They, therefore, begin liquefying their prey with some pretty potent juices before dining. They cannot host a tapeworm
546 Tent repair 7/9/2008 Start by preparing both sides of the surface around the tear: Make sure it's very clean and dry (an alcohol wipe from your first aid kit works great). Apply one of the peel and stick patch to the outside of the tear to create a backing for your repair job. Press it carefully and make sure there are no lurking air bubbles. Now, flip things over and work from the inside. Trim a sil-nylon fabric swatch to cover damaged area and extend about 1⁄4 inch (5mm) beyond. (Shape your patch with rounded edges, rather than squared off ones–they'll be much less likely to peel away.) Paint the SilFix over damaged area and 1⁄2 inch (10mm) beyond. For the best bond, the adhesive really needs to extend beyond the patch. Center and apply sil-nylon fabric swatch. Smooth it out to eliminate air bubbles and press down edges. Let it dry flat for 2 hours. Now, you're good to go–Now, you're good to go–the repair is permanent!
98 Testing you survival gear 11/9/2007 1 ) Buy a roomy daypack for extra clothes, food, and basic survival gear, and always take it with you. ( 2 ) Practice a worst-case scenario: Make yourself spend a cold night without much gear. It won’t be comfortable, but as Tuttle points out, it’s a great confidence builder. Plus you’ll discover if your gear is adequate. ( 3 ) If you come to a rocky impasse in the mountains, it’s always safer to go back the way you came, no matter how daunting that may seem. ( 4 ) If you have done your part by leaving a note detailing where and when you will be hunting, most search-and-rescue teams will find you within 24 hours of the start of their search. If you need more information, check out
21 Tracking 12/22/2006 Track Trap: a tracking and search and rescue term for and area cleared of all footprints or tracks to allow for new foot prints to pass through and be recorded.
597 Traps; 3 best traps to know 9/12/2009 If you are learning traps, the three best to know are the rolling snare, the figure 4 and paiute dead fall.
27 Travel 12/27/2006 If you pace yourself and learn how to move comfortably over rocky terrain, you’ll be less tired, and less likely to twist an ankle. Tighten those laces, too.
648 use for ash 1/3/2015 Make lye water out of ash. You can boil 2-3 spoons of ash (clean white/grey fluffy ash) with water and then filter it with a coffee filter. Lye water is a great cleaning agent and sanitizer for clothes, floors, windows, silverware, plates, and even rust in marble. You can also make lye by adding the fluffy white ash in a cheesecloth. In a bucket with holes on its base, you add the cheesecloth and ash, and hang it somewhere high. Add the water. Underneath, place another clean bucket to collect the lye. The lye has a brownish colour, so you remove the bucket when clean water starts to sip through. Test the lye by adding a fresh egg in the liquid. If the egg floats, the lye is good to go, if not, repeat the process.-For use in soap making. 2. A paste made out of ash and water, can remove stains from furniture. 3. If we want to remove a stain from clothes the moment they happen, we add a bit of ash and after about five minutes, we rub it with the crumb of a bread (not the crust, the soft white bit). 4. Ash is a great odour repellent, just add a bit over the area that smells. eg, kitty litter. 5. You can remove odours from a fridge, by adding a plate of charcoal ash inside. Change the charcoal over, until the smell is gone. 6. You can use it to brush your teeth. (recipe here) 7. You can wash your hair with lye soap and rinse with vinegar. This is especially good for oily hair. 8. Lye is used in many foods and sweets. Like grape must pudding (moustalevria), honey cookies (melomakarona), and in bread. It makes bread fluffy and prevents it from crumbling. Lye is also good for the cleansing of the intestines. 9. Ash was used for many years in farming. It recycles the natural nutrients back into the earth. It can be used as compost but does not include Nitrogen. It aids in the increase of the earths PH level which in return, aids in the growth of the plants. (But because of the ongoing increase of the PH level, not all veg and fruit thrive from it. eg potatoes). 10. It strengthens plants that love calcium, such as tomatoes, vineyards, beans, spinach, peas, avocados, garlic etc. Even rose bushes. You can add 1/4 cup ash before planting. 11. One spoon ash per 1000l of water, strengthens underwater plants. 12.It prevents plants from frost in winter, if you add a layer of ash over them. 13. Animals hate ash. You can rid your garden of insects and various parasites, such as slugs and snails. 14. You can rid yourself of ants. If you throw some ash in their colony, they will be forced to relocate, as they can’t move the ash. 15. Spread some ash in the corners of the house, or dark spots of your cellar etc. For as long as there is ash, no mice/rats, cockroaches or insects approach. 16. It repels lice, ticks and fleas off animals. You make a thick paste of ash and vinegar and spread over the fur. It’s messy, but it works. 17. It repels clothes moths. You can add some ash on your stored clothes, and simply shake it off when you need to use them. You can leave them for years this way, and nothing will happen to them. 18. Lye is used to make soap (potassium hydroxide). It’s a bit of a lengthy process, but its worth it. 19. Ash is used for “immortal eggs”. In a recipe used in the Middle East, they preserve eggs in a mix of clay, ash, salt, lime and rice rind for many months. 20. Sodium Carbonate, can be made out of ash. It is known to be an excellent product, used as household cleaner. Boil water and ash, until it evaporates. The remaining substance is your Sodium Carbonate (Soda). 21. Ash contains salt, and can therefore melt ice. 22. The charcoal collected within the ash, can be used as a filter. 23. You can use charcoal to filter blurry wine. 24. You can use charcoal to filter water before drinking. 25. Charcoal in metal containers can be used to remove humidity in cellars, cupboards and under sinks. 26. You can put a fire out quickly by throwing ash over it. 27. In the older days, they used to preserve seeds in large clay containers, by adding a thick layer of ash over them. This prevented insects from destroying their produce. 28. It can be used in wounds, to kill bacteria and aid in faster healing. Melting hand made soap in lye water and rinsing a wound with it without rinsing over it with clean water. 29. No fridge? No worries! You can preserve your fruits and vegetables for many days, even years, by digging a hole in the ground and filling it with ash. Add your veg and fruit, ensuring enough space between them, so that they do not touch each other, or the muddy ground. Seal the hole with a piece of wood, and you let it be. 30. In the olden days, to preserve the fresh rennet, they added it in a bone animal horn, filled it with ash, sealed it with mud and hanged it from a tree. This ensured the rennet lasted for many many years
596 Video on building a fire piston 9/10/2009
652 video on tarp setup 2/28/2015 good video on tarps
56 watch compass 3/2/2007 Point the hour hand to the sun. Form an angle from the hour hand to the 1200 position and disect the angle. Thia will form your north and south line. Intersect this line with a perpendicular line and this will be your east and west line. Remember sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
646 water 5/22/2014 Finding and using water is the most important survival skill after shelter. If you can't survive the night you won't need the water, so build your shelter first. Under most circumstances we can survive three weeks without food but only three days without water. It is therefore crucial that we not only find water but also that we conserve the water already in our system.  Of all the physical problems encountered in a survival situation, the loss of water is the most preventable. The following are basic guidelines for the prevention of dehydration: Always drink water when eating. Water is used as a part of the digestion process and failure to drink can lead to dehydration.The body performs more efficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized. It is important to control our body temperature through warming or cooling, thus acclimatizing, becoming used to the environment around your.Limit sweat-producing activities, but this alone is not enough. Continue to drink water.Ration water. Until you find a safe, sustainable source, ration your water. A daily intake of 16 ounces, (0.5 liter or 2 cups) will help to prevent severe dehydration for at least a week, provided you keep water losses to a minimum by limiting over heating and reducing activity. Begin with the obvious and look for a river, stream or lake. You have seen bottled water that touts the fact that it is spring water. Moving water can be heard for quite a distance so take time to stop and listen. Springs are a great source but remember any water found can be contaminated so you must be cautious and purify water before it is used. In areas where no surface water is available, dig into damp soil and allow this muddy water to settle and become clear. Another way to clear water is to make a water filter(directions below). Be careful of water which is not moving and has little or no signs of life.    Observe the flight path of birds at dawn and dusk. They will usually point you to water. 2. Swarming insects; indicate a nearby water source. 3. Animals are adept at finding water in the wild. Pay close attention to the local wildlife. 4. Lush green vegetation is a sign that water is near. Dig down.  Rocks and crevices.  In cactus. Remember, water flows downhill so head downhill and you will find where water has accumulated. Another method of finding water in the wild is to tie a rag or a piece of clothing around your ankle or leg and walk through the grass and bushes in the early morning. The fabric will soak up the dew that has formed during the night. You can then wring it out into a container and repeat the process until you have enough water or the dew has gone for the day. Distillation is a good method for purifying water but the process takes a long time. You will need a metal container to heat the water and a method to capturing the steam and cooling it until water form. This can be done simply by using a pot and a lid and directing to cooling vapors into a second container. You may want to experiment with this and look at some information before you get stuck. Water purification tablets or devices are the best way to assure safe drinking water. Include one of these in your hiking supplies and in your car in case you are unexpectedly stranded. If your water tastes flat after purifying it, aeration by pouring it back and forth between two containers will make it more palatable. Below ground Still To make a belowground still, you need a shovel or other tool for digging, a food grade ccontainer, a food grade plastic sheet, a food grade plastic tube, and a rock. Select a site where you believe the soil will contain moisture (such as a dry stream bed, a place near plant life or a low spot where rainwater has collected). The soil at this site should be easy to dig. Sunlight must hit the site most of the day for evaporation to occur. To construct the still-- Dig a bowl-shaped hole about 3 feet across and 2 feet deep.Dig a hole in the center of the original hole. The depth and width will depend on the size of the container that you have to place in it. This is the container that will collect the drinking water. The bottom of the second hole should allow the container to stand up.Place the container upright in the smaller hole.Place a piece of tubing in the container long enough to reach the bottom of the container and extend beyond the top of the original hole.Lay tubing on rim of the hole.Place a plastic sheet over the original hole, covering the edges with soil or rocks to hold it in place.Place a baseball size rock in the center of the plastic sheet.Lower the plastic sheet into the hole until it is 12-14 inches below ground level. It now forms an inverted cone shape. Make sure that the cone's center, where the rock is, is directly over your container. Also make sure the plastic cone does not touch the sides of the hole because the earth will absorb the condensed water.Put more soil or rocks around the edges of the plastic to hold it if needed to keep the moisture on the bottom of the plastic from evaporating.The moisture from the ground will condense on the plastic and drip into your containers. Be sure to use plastic that is food grade and never anything with scents.Plug the end of the tube which is above ground when not in use so that the moisture will not evaporate. Use the tube as a straw and drink. If polluted water is your only moisture source, dig a small trough outside the original hole about 10 inches from the edge of the hole. Dig the trough 8-9 inches deep and 3 inches wide. Carefully pour the polluted water into the trough.. The soil will filter out the pollutants and clean water will condence on the plastic sheet. This also works great for salt water.  You will need at least three or four stills for each person.  Water Filtration Devices If the water you find is also muddy, stagnant, and/or foul smelling, you can clear the water-- By placing it in a container and letting it stand for 12 hours and gently pouring off the clear water.By pouring it through a filtering system. These methods only clear the water and make it more palatable. You will still have to purify the water. To make a filtering system, make a tri pod from three branches. Tie a T shirt or other fabric onto each of the three legs. Place container under the fabric to catch filtered water. Layer 10-12 inches of sand and/or charcoal and/or crushed rock in a plastic container such as a milk jug. Poke small holes in the bottom of the container. Suspend container over a pot or other large collection container. Pour water in the top and allow it to drain through.  These methods will filter out twigs, leaves and insects but again you will need to purify your water.  Purifying water: See Survival Skills Water Part 1  Add this article and all the Survival Skills series to your Preparedness Binder. Some day you will need them and running to the internet may not be an option.   Content by nRelate
11 Water 12/18/2006 An unlubricated condom can be used as a water container. A bandana or a sock can protect the water container from breaking.
606 Water distillation for purification 3/16/2010 While the two methods described above will kill most microorganisms in water, distillation will remove microorganisms that resist these methods, as well as heavy metals, salts, and most other chemicals. Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back to water. The condensed vapor will not include salt or most other impurities. To distill, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot’s lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water), and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.
69 water filters 5/29/2007 How to make a water filter in the wilderness You need to know how to make a water filter if you face the fact that the only water you can find is dirty muddy water. When you filter water you remove all "visual" particles from the water. There are a number of different ways to filter dirty water. One simple way to make your own water filter is to use sand and gravel. How to make a water filter - use what’s available: 1. To start with, you need a container. If you can find a large, empty can, use it. Punch 5-10 holes around the bottom of the can.A large plastic bottle is also fine. Cut the end of the bottle off evenly. If there is no container available you have to use what material the nature can provide. Can you find birch bark? If so make a cone of birch bark. The cone will need to have a fairly small hole in the bottom. Tie the cone with cordage to keep it from opening up. Put a few stones in the very bottom, to help hold your filtering materials in place. 2. Then fill your container with layers of sand and gravel from the bottom to the top. For sand and gravel use both fine and coarse layers. The bigger the filter, and the more layers you have in it, the better. If you use a bottle or cone you need to stop the sand to get out of the container. Find some filter material you can place at the bottom. For instance: - a couple of centimeter (inches) of pebbles, - a grass mesh, make sure it’s nonpoisonous grass, - or cotton material 3. Collect some water. Pour your collected water through the filter. Catch it in another container at the bottom.Look at the water that comes out of the filter. It should be clear. If not you may have to pass the water through the filter more than once. 4. Now you know how to make a water filter but to get safe water to drink you also have to purify your water. The water may still contain harmful bacteria that your filter did not remove. Charcoal water filter If you are lucky and have activated charcoal, make a layer between the sand and the gravel layers, see step 2 above. Activated charcoal helps to remove bacteria and such.
77 water from the sea 8/26/2007 Boil sea water and catch the steam in a cloth or allow to condense on foil. The cloth can be squeezed and water extracted. The foil can act as a still and collect the salt free water.
73 water in winter 7/31/2007 NALGENE Cantene "Roll up a 48oz NALGENE Cantene and stuff it in a survival kit. When out in snow country, fix a neck strap to the Cantene, wear it under your parka and refill it with a little bit of snow each time you drink. The small amount of snow will melt while not making the rest of the water too cold, and you'll always have fresh water. Drink water often: if your tongue hits your knees when you walk, you haven't been drinking enough."
50 Water in winter 2/11/2007 A camel back can freeze making it difficult to drink water. Either carry water in nalgene bottles (lids pointing down) or blow the water back into the camel back after drinking. However, the residue water dropletts can still freeze and stop the flow of water.
613 Water purification 11/20/2010 Coffee filter and bandanna: If you can filter the mud and debris out of the water, it will make any filter last that much longer. In especially turbid, muddy water, wrap the coffee filter around the bottom of any filter and attach it with a rubber band. It will help! The bandanna has many uses, including serving as a water filter. A clean one, that you haven’t used to wipe your nose, is preferable!
522 water purification 4/16/2008 Household chlorine bleach and medicine dropper – When diluted nine parts water to one part bleach, bleach can be used as a disinfectant. Or in an emergency, you can use it to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. Do not use scented, color safe or bleaches with added cleaners.
65 Water purification 3/11/2007 Water purification can be done in many ways. One is boiling water for 5 minutes to all all contaminates in the solution. If the water is dirty, it is a good idea to strain out the large debris first using a bandana, cheese cloth, tee shirt or any other poreous material.
605 water purification with bleach 3/16/2010 Add 16 drops (1/8 teaspoon) of bleach per gallon of water, stir and let stand for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight bleach odor. If it doesn’t, then repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes. If it still does not smell of bleach, discard it and find another source of water.
619 Water purification: Solar Disinfection using bottles 1/17/2011 Solar Disinfection: SODIS SODIS, or SOlar DISinfection, is the cheapest and easiest of the methods listed here. Solar disinfection only requires two things: clear plastic (PET) bottles and sunlight. Find soda or water bottles with the PET recycling mark that are clear and colorless, 2 liters or less in volume, and preferably no more than 4 inches in diameter. Fill them with water, close the cap, and lay them on their sides in full and direct sunlight for a day. It’s better if you place them on a shiny surface, such as corrugated metal roofing, and angle them towards the sun so that they sun’s rays will strike the bottles more directly. If the water is cloudy or turbid, filter the water with cloth or cotton until it is clear. Keep the bottles in direct sunlight for at least 6 hours. If the sky is cloudy, you will need to keep the bottles out for two days. So, how does it work? The strong ultraviolet light (UV-A) from the sun not only destroys bacteria directly, but it also reacts with oxygen to create oxygen free-radicals which can also kill bacteria. One way to improve the effectiveness of the process is to aerate the water by shaking it. To do this, fill the bottle 3/4 full, cap it off and shake it. Then fill the bottle up the rest of the way until it’s completely full. This oxygenates the water and increases the amount of oxygen free-radicals created by the sunlight.
96 Water/Purification 10/23/2007 OA Guide to Water Purification part of The Backpacker's Field Manual by Rick Curtis first edition published by Random House March, 1998 This material is taken from Chapter 4 - Hygiene & Water Purification from The Backpackers Field Manual by Rick Curtis. For more details on this exciting book check out The Backpacker's Field Manual Page. This material is provided by the author for educational use only and is not a substitute for specific training or experience. Princeton University and the author assume no liability for any individual's use of or reliance upon any material contained or referenced herein. When going into outdoors it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge, experience, and equipment to travel safely. This material may not be reproduced in any form for commercial or Internet publication without express written permission of the author. Copyright © 1999, all rights reserved, Random House Publishing & Rick Curtis, Outdoor Action Program, Princeton University. Water Purification Dipping your head into a cold mountain stream and taking a long refreshing drink is an experience that has basically vanished from the wilderness areas of America. With the increased use of the wilderness there has also been an increase in the amount of bacteriological contamination of backcountry water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports that 90 percent of the world’s water is contaminated in some way. There are a variety of microscopic organisms that can contaminate water supplies and cause potentially serious, even fatal, illnesses among wilderness travelers. The major danger in the backcountry from these infections is fluid loss due to diarrhea and vomiting, which can lead to hypovolemic shock and possibly death (see Diarrhea or Vomiting, page 315; Fluid Electrolyte Replacement, page 286; Shock, page 238). In order to drink the water, you should be prepared to treat it. There are numerous methods of water purification, described below in order of effectiveness. Remember, however, that infections can also be spread through poor personal hygiene, something that purifying your water won’t prevent. Biologically Contaminated vs. Toxic Water Biologically contaminated water is water that contains microorganisms such as Giardia (a common microorganism that, if not killed, leads to intestinal disorders), bacteria, or viruses that can lead to infections (see Gastrointestinal Infections, page 316). Toxic water sources contain chemical contamination from pesticide runoffs, mine tailings, and so on. Boiling, filtering, or chemically treating water can remove or kill microorganisms, but it will not remove chemical toxins. This is also the case when using a solar still (see page 223). Boiling Boiling is the most certain way of killing all microorganisms. According to the Wilderness Medical Society, water temperatures above 160° F (70° C) kill all pathogens within 30 minutes and above 185° F (85° C) within a few minutes. So in the time it takes for the water to reach the boiling point (212° F or 100° C) from 160° F (70° C), all pathogens will be killed, even at high altitude. To be extra safe, let the water boil rapidly for one minute, especially at higher altitudes since water boils at a lower temperature (see page 68.) Chemical Purification There are two types of chemical treatment: those using iodine and those using chlorine. There are a variety of products on the market, so follow the directions on the bottle. Be advised that many of the tablets have an expiration date and become ineffective after that point. Also, once the bottle has been opened, the tablets must be used within a certain period. When in doubt, buy a new bottle. Remember that chemical purification methods may only be partially effective, depending on the water temperature. General Chemical Treatment Procedures The effectiveness of all chemical treatment of water is related to the temperature, pH level, and clarity of the water. Cloudy water often requires higher concentrations of chemical to disinfect. If the water is cloudy or filled with large particles, strain it, using a cloth, before treatment. Large particles, if swallowed, may be purified only "on the outside." Add the chemical to the water and swish it around to aid in dissolving. Splash some of the water with the chemical onto the lid and the threads of the water bottle so that all water areas are treated. The water should sit for at least 30 minutes after adding the chemical to allow purification to occur. If using tablets, let the water sit for 30 minutes after the tablet has dissolved. The colder the water, the less effective the chemical is as a purifying agent. Research has shown that at 50° F (10° C), only 90 percent of Giardia cysts were inactivated after 30 minutes of exposure. If the water temperature is below 40° F (4° C), double the treatment time before drinking. It is best if water is at least 60° F (16° C) before treating. You can place the water in the sun to warm it before treating. Chemically treated water can be made to taste better by pouring it back and forth between containers, after it has been adequately treated. Other methods include adding a pinch of salt per quart or adding flavorings (e.g., lemonade mix, etc.) after the chemical treatment period. Iodine Treatment Iodine is light sensitive and must always be stored in a dark bottle. It works best if the water is over 68° F (21° C). Iodine has been shown to be more effect than chlorine-based treatments in inactivating Giardia cysts. Be aware that some people are allergic to iodine and cannot use it as a form of water purification. Persons with thyroid problems or on lithum, women over fifty, and pregnant women should consult their physician prior to using iodine for purification. Also, some people who are allergic to shellfish are also allergic to iodine. If someone cannot use iodine, use either a chlorine-based product or a non-iodine-based filter, such as the PUR Hiker Microfilter, MSR WaterWorks, or the Katadyn Water Filter. Generally, the procedure is as follows: Liquid 2% Tincture of Iodine Add 5 drops per quart when the water is clear. Add 10 drops per quart when the water is cloudy. Polar Pure Iodine Crystals Fill the Polar Pure bottle with water and shake. The solution will be ready for use in one hour. Add the number of capfuls (per quart of water treated) listed on the bottle, based on the temperature of the iodine solution. The particle trap prevents crystals from getting into the water being treated. It is important to note that you are using the iodine solution to treat the water, not the iodine crystals. The concentration of iodine in a crystal is poisonous and can burn tissue or eyes. Let the treated water stand for 30 minutes before drinking. In order to destroy Giardia cysts, the drinking water must be at least 68° F (20° C). The water can be warmed in the sun before treating or hot water can be added. Refill the treatment bottle after use so that the solution will be ready one hour later. Crystals in the bottle make enough solution to treat about 2,000 quarts. Discard the bottle when empty. Potable Aqua This is an iodine tablet product. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use. Chlorine Treatment Chlorine can be used for persons with iodine allergies or restrictions. Remember that water temperature, sediment level, and contact time are all elements in killing microorganisms in the water. Halazone is an example of a chlorine tablet product. To use, follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Tricks of the Trail Backups Always have at least one backup method for water purification in case one fails. This can be any combination of methods. I’m the cautious type, so I always have two backup methods: water filter and 2% tincture of iodine or Polar Pure iodine crystals. And I can always boil the water. If boiling is your backup method, make sure you have enough fuel. Fix the Taste Adding vitamin C (about 50 milligrams) to iodized water completely eliminates any taste or color of iodine. You must wait until the iodine has purified the water before adding the vitamin C. The vitamin C in drink mixes like Tang™ has the same effect. < Filtration There are a number of devices on the market that filter out microorganisms. A water filter pumps water through a microscopic filter that is rated for a certain-size organism. The standard size rating is the micron (the period at the end of this sentence is about 600 microns). Depending on the micron rating of the filter, smaller organisms (like viruses) can pass through. Be cautious when selecting a filter. You should know what potential organisms you need to treat for. You don’t want to go to an area where a virus like hepatitis A is present in the water (a problem in some developing countries) with a filter that will handle only a larger organism like Giardia. Common microorganisms and the filter size needed: Organism Examples General Size Filter Type Particle Size Rating Protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium 5 microns or larger Water filter 1.0–4.0 microns Bacteria Cholera, E. coli, Salmonella 0.2–0.5 microns Microfilter 0.2–1.0 microns Viruses Hepatitis A, rotavirus, Norwalk virus 0.004 microns Water purifier to 0.004 microns There are two basic types of filters (descriptions of several popular models begin on the facing page). Membrane Filters use thin sheets with precisely sized pores that prevent objects larger than the pore size from passing through. Pro: Relatively easy to clean. Con: Clog more quickly than depth filters. Example: PUR-Hiker. Depth Filters use thick porous materials such as carbon or ceramic to trap particles as water flows through the material. Pro: Can be partially cleaned by backwashing. Activated carbon filters also remove a range of organic chemicals and heavy metals. Con: Rough treatment can crack the filter, rendering it useless. Examples: MSR WaterWorks II, Katadyn. Note: There is a difference between a water filter and a water purifier. Filters do not filter out viruses, but there are water purifiers, like the PUR Scout, that pass the water through both a filter and an iodine compound that kills any smaller organisms that have passed through the filter. These purifiers kill all microorganisms down to 0.004 microns; however, the filter should not be used by people who are allergic to iodine. Common Practices for Using a Water Filter Filter the cleanest water you can find. Dirty water or water with large suspended particles will clog your filter more quickly. Prefilter the water either through a prefilter on the pump or strain it through a bandanna. If you must filter dirty water, let it stand overnight for particles to settle out. Tricks of the Trail Some water filters come as sealed cartridges, making it impossible to inspect the actual filter cartridge. If the filter takes a serious fall, it could crack internally. If the filter inside cracks, unfiltered water can flow through the crack. Treat your filter with care, and if it takes a significant impact, throw it away. Remember, any intake hose from a water filter has been submerged in unfiltered water. Treat this hose as "contaminated" and keep it in a separate plastic bag. This material is provided by the author for educational use only and is not a substitute for specific training or experience. Princeton University and the author assume no liability for any individual's use of or reliance upon any material contained or referenced herein. When going into outdoors it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge, experience, and equipment to travel safely. This material may not be reproduced in any form for commercial or Internet publication without express written permission of the author. Copyright © 1999, all rights reserved, Random House Publishing & Rick Curtis, Outdoor Action Program, Princeton University.
47 Water: in winter 1/14/2007 Carring water in winter is difficult due to freezing. A camel back is ok but unless you blow the water back into the bag, the tube will freeze and you will not get water needed. One the trail, I find that if I carry two small nalgene bottles in my jacket pocket with a spill cap, I do not experience this problem. In addition I call 2 extra liters of water in my pack in nalgene bottles. Upside down (ice forms at top). I do carry a camel back when weather is above 25 degrees.
48 Water: in winter 1/14/2007 Plastic GI flasks can be used to carry water next to your body in a coat. This will give you access to water while traveling with out the water freezing.
592 Why children Survive 5/16/2009 A three-year-old boy survived alone for two days in the Missouri wilderness. Experts say some people have what it takes to survive in such harsh conditions, and some people do not.Are Children Better Suited to Survival? Joshua Childers was outfitted in a t-shirt, sneakers and a pull-up diaper when he wandered into the Mark Twain National Forest surrounding his family's mobile home in Madison County. His ability to survive alone for 52 hours in harsh conditions, including heavy rain and temperatures in the 40s, suggests that his age "might actually have worked in his favor," according to Associated Press reporter Jim Salter. Survivalist skills expert Cody Lundin told the AP that Childers "probably didn't have any problem burrowing into some leaves or using whatever was around him to keep warm. What hampers a lot of adults is they don't want to get dirty or they're afraid of bugs."
672 will to survive 5/4/2015 the courage to face your fears and the courage to believe. the will to survive is the most dynamic tool you can use in a survival situation. gain your strength for your will to survive comes from all different sources. my source comes from God and knowing he is all seeing all acting all wises all loving and eternal. my strength comes from knowing that God is principal, mind, soul, spirit, life, truth, love, all substances intelligence. since I am the reflection of God and of his creation all of these sources are available to me. this is how I face every survival situation I have ever encountered. when fear tries to enter my mind I realize that fear this is only false evidence appearing real hence F E A R.
632 winter backcountry travel tips 11/30/2012 Plan Your Path Learn to find the safest terrain and most efficient travel line with these pointers from SP Parker, professional mountain guide and owner of the Sierra Mountain Center’s mountaineering school. 1. Avoid traveling on or below 30- to 45-degree slopes—prime avalanche terrain. Bring a slope index to convert map contour lines to a precise angle. 2. Dense slabs and loose pillows of wind-deposited snow can build up on lee slopes. Slabs increase avalanche risk and pillows can make travel difficult. 3. Cornices often break at a 45-degree angle, so you don’t need to be standing directly on one to be swept away by it. Also, avoid traveling beneath them. 4. Windward ridges often have less snow, making them easier travel paths. 5. Tree-covered areas on gentle angles are safer; the trees help anchor snowpack. 6. Avoid traveling over ice near inlets and outlets where moving water prevents thick frozen layers from forming. 7. Rocks absorb solar radiation, which makes nearby snow shallower than the surrounding snowpack—prone to postholing and an avalanche trigger. 8. Solidly frozen lakes can be safe. Probe ice with a pole to ensure it’s at least two inches thick. Keep 100 feet between people. Rise Before Shine “If temperatures are hovering near or above freezing and you’re planning approaches on south- or east-facing slopes, consider starting predawn. There will be less potential for rockfall from thawing slopes above, and the snow surface will be more solid while it’s still frozen.” –Andrew Matranga, BACKPACKER Map Editor Listen Up “Turn off your iPod and smartphone, since they interfere dangerously with avalanche beacon signals. Music or calls may also keep you from hearing the biggest sign of avy danger—a whumph sound made by a snowpack layer collapsing.” –Jonathan Shefftz, National Ski Patrol avalanche instructor Sidestep Snow Traps “Especially on faster-paced descents, watch for signs of obstacles under the snow, such as a protruding branch or surface undulations from boulders. Your snowshoe could punch through a hollow spot, and you could twist a knee.” –SP Parker
569 winter camping tips 1/8/2009 Hangin' with my relatives for the holidays has me fat, happy...and constantly looking out the window thinking about nights in the winter-silenced woods. So here's a checklist for those of you who've thought about camping in the chill season, but haven't tried it yet. Preparation: [] For your first camp-out, pick a scenic and sheltered destination that's not far from retreat. You don't need to go any farther than land management regulations or road noise require. If things go wrong, you can bail. [] Choose a location with available firewood. You may not want a fire, but that way one is available if needed. [] Camp near open water if possible, so you don't have to spend all your time melting snow. If you'll need to melt snow, plan on using three times the fuel you would for normal summer camping. [] Know the weather forecast before you go. Don't get surprised by sudden cold, storm, wind, or even a thaw that will make for soaking wet conditions. Gear: [] Dress in layers, and have the gear to overdress. You'll need more clothes than you would for day-long activities like skiing. [] Make sure your sleeping bag will suffice for long, cold nights. If you don't have a winter bag, take two 3-season bags and nest one inside the other. Check the combination at home for fit and interior space. [] Your boots need to be warm and waterproof. If you just own light hikers, go buy a cheap pair of snowmobile/moon boots. Support is less important than warmth here. Make sure they fit well and are durable enough for your trip. [] Don't cram extra socks into your boots unless there's plenty of room for them. Tight-fitting boots will cut off circulation rather than keeping your feet warm. [] Many three-season tents are perfectly adequate unless you expect heavy snow or high winds. [] White gas stoves are best for winter, but in most conditions alcohol or canister stoves work fine. For cartridge stoves, avoid 80/20 butane/propane canisters (use isobutane), and warm cartridges in your sleeping bag or parka before firing up. [] Hats and handwear are important. Choose a thick, warm hat. Mittens are more versatile than gloves, just pull them off briefly for dexterity needs. [] Don't forget sunglasses and sunscreen. Reflective snow can cook you, especially from late February on. [] Bring a good headlamp with fresh batteries. You'll want lots of light to deal with long nighttime hours. On Your Hike: [] If the snow is shallower than about one foot, don't worry about skis or snowshoes. Keep it simple. You'll want gaiters though. [] Turn around frequently to survey your route, so you'll recognize it more easily on the way out, should snow or wind obscure your tracks. (A good idea in all seasons). [] It's easier to stay warm than it is to re-warm. Don't let yourself get chilled, or sweaty. Anticipate upcoming temperature and layering changes to stay ahead of them. For example, it's smarter to layer up just before reaching a windy ridge top than it is to top out, get chilled, and then fight against the wind while layering up. [] Don't forget to drink. It's easy to get dehydrated in winter. [] You need calories to stay warm, so don't let yourself get hungry, but don't overdo it either. At Camp: [] Put on all your warm clothes immediately upon arrival. Preserve the heat you generated on the hike in. [] When camping on snow, stomp out a tent platform immediately using skis, snowshoes or just boots and a shovel. Make it larger than you think you'll need, and be fanatic about packing it flat. Then let it set up hard before trying to pitch your tent. [] Set up camp so you can cook food and drinks from your sleeping bag. If you cook in a vestibule, prime your stove outside the tent, then bring it in. Allow for plenty of ventilation. [] Plan to spend lots of bag time, so have an activity to pass the dark hours, like a book, good conversation, games, or simple but multi-course meals. [] If you start to chill, don't just sit there in misery. Go on a walk, do sit-ups or deep knee bends. Generate metabolic heat. [] Hot water bottles also work miracles for chilled campers. Placed close to your body underneath clothes or bag, they'll pump heat for about six hours. [] Mornings are the toughest time for winter camping. Temps are usually coldest just before dawn, and you'll emerge from your bag inactive and easily chilled. Get up and go for a walk. Then come back and break camp once you've warmed up. Got your own favorite winter camping tips? Cough 'em up in the comments section. --Steve Howe
39 Winter Driving 12/29/2006 Drink water regularly. Even if you aren’t thirsty, stay hydrated. But don’t eat snow -- it can lower your body temperature. Keep a coffee can and candle in a survival kit to melt snow if necessary.
38 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Remember where the shelter is. As snow piles up around your car, it becomes a metal-framed snow cave. Snow is an insulator, and will help keep the constant temperature inside your car at freezing or just above. But remember to allow outside air in, even if you have to tunnel from your window to the outside.
37 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Stay in your car. If you feel you have to leave it and investigate, but still want to find your way back, use a length of cord (if it’s not already in your car survival kit, add it); tie one end around your waist and the other end to your car
36 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Don’t panic. If you drive off the road, or can’t continue because of blinding snow and must pull over, stay calm and think about your situation. If you lose your sense of direction in a blinding storm, remember that winter storms usually have wind blowing from the north to northeast
35 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Keep the gas tank near full to help avoid ice in the tank and fuel lines.
33 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Turn on headlights to create better visibility. Don’t drive on bald tires.
32 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Stay at least two car lengths from vehicle in front of you for every 10 mph of speed.
31 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 Slow down; it decreases the space you need to stop.
34 Winter Driving 12/28/2006 If you must travel, pack a winter emergency kit that includes jumper cables, a flashlight, rope or cord, nonperishable snack, water, ice scraper, a blanket, warm clothes, snow boots, small shovel, bag of cat litter or sand and first aid kit. Chains may also be advisable for mountain driving.
53 Winter shelter/ tent 3/1/2007 Accumulating snow can be extremely heavy and your tent could collapse. Dome tents are ideal for winter camping, but do also purchase a ground sheet or tarp to lie down before you set the tent up. Your body heat will melt snow underneath you and create a layer of ice that could potentially damage the tent floor or make it wet.